Frequency and Spectroscopy of Renal Stones on Perkin Elmer FTIR Spectrum 2 Instrument

Spectroscopy of Renal Stones


  • Akash John University Institute of Radiological and Medical Imaging Sciences,The University of Lahore, Gujrat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan
  • Tallat Anwar Faridi University Institute of Public Health, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Taiba Suleman The University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • Anil Gill Gujranwala Institute of Medical and Emerging Sciences, Gujranwala, Pakistan
  • Neelam Iqbal Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Sofia Noor University Institute of Public Health, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Sana Zahid University Institute of Public Health, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Suleman John University Institute of Radiological and Medical Imaging Sciences,The University of Lahore, Gujrat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan



Renal Stones, Renal calculi, Perkin Elmer FTIR spectrum 2, Spectroscopy, Nephrolithiasis


Renal stones are solid masses, which are a build-up of crystals. They usually develop anywhere in urinary system consisting kidneys, ureters bladder and urethra. Renal stones cause severe pain in the respective organ which may vary according to stone size and shape. Their etiology depends on geographic, socioeconomic and clinical factors.Objective: To determine the frequency and spectroscopy of renal stones on Perkin Elmer FTIR Spectrum Two Instrument. Methods:A study was conducted on200 patients, both males and females with renal stones having agegroups of 1-20, 21-40 and 41-60 years for the duration of 11 months in Lahore, Pakistan. Demography on risk factors for stones included family history, obesity, gastro-intestinal disease, surgery, dehydration and certain diets was observed.A focus was on number of stones, its size, colour, shape and surface build up. The spectroscopy of stones was carried out using Perkin Elmer FTIR spectrum 2. Results: Renal stones were observed to be more frequentin males than females. Meanwhile, females have common features of renal stones but may have variationsin some properties. Age group 21-40 years have high frequency with 143 patients (36.67%). In spectroscopy nature and shape of stone reveals that most common shape of the stone was irregular and 68% were pure stones while 33% mixed in composition and propertiesConclusions: The formations of stones may depend on geographic, socioeconomic and clinical factors withvarying frequencies and propertiesin male and female ratio.


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DOI: 10.54393/pjhs.v2i02.2
Published: 2021-12-31

How to Cite

John, A. ., Faridi, T. A. ., Suleman, T. ., Gill, A. ., Iqbal, N. ., Noor, S. ., Zahid, S. ., & John, S. . (2021). Frequency and Spectroscopy of Renal Stones on Perkin Elmer FTIR Spectrum 2 Instrument : Spectroscopy of Renal Stones. Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences, 2(02), 11–16.



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