https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/issue/feed Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences 2024-04-08T18:04:30+00:00 Khurram Mehboob editor@thejas.com.pk Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Title of Journal: </strong><strong>Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences</strong></p> <p><strong> (ISSN Online: 2790-9352, Print: 2790-9344)</strong></p> <p><strong>Frequency: </strong><strong>Monthly (w.e.f July-2022)</strong></p> <p><strong>Affiliated with:</strong> Lahore Medical Research Center</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href="http://www.lmrc.com.pk">www.lmrc.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Published By:</strong> CrossLinks International Publishers (CLIP), Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href="http://www.clip.com.pk">www.clip.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 590-Karim Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p>Lahore Medical Research Center has published <strong>"Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences</strong><strong> (PJHS)</strong>"; A Monthly, Double Blind peer-reviewed open access Journal. The aim of the Journal is to provide a platform for allied health professionals to publish their research work. All materials, articles and information published in <strong>PJHS</strong> will be peer-reviewed.</p> <p>Research papers, Short communications, Review or mini-reviews, Commentaries, Perspectives, opinion, Meta-analysis, Case reports, Case studies, Case-control studies</p> <p>Reviews on recent progress in Health Sciences are commissioned by the editors. The purpose of the <strong>PJHS</strong> is to publish scientific and technical research papers to bring attention of international researchers, scientists, academicians, health care professionals towards recent advancements in Health Sciences. The articles are collected in the form of reviews, original studies, clinical studies etc. It may serve as a global platform for scientists in relevant fields to connect and mutually share ideas. This journal is open to all the research professionals whose work fall within our scope. </p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Accreditation:</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Approved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the year 2023-24</strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Fee &amp; Subscription Charges</strong></span></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National) Rs 35000 / Article</p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ) 200 USD / Article</p> <p>Printed Version (Selected Articles on Authors Request) : Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Annual Subscription for Printed Versions</strong></span></p> <p>For Institutes: Rs 20,000/ Annually</p> <p>Single Copy (Selected Articles): Rs 2500/-</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></span></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong><u>Submissions</u></strong></p> <p>Submission are welcome and may be submitted here: <u><a href="mailto:editor@thejas.com.pk">editor@thejas.com.pk</a></u></p> https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1317 Nanopore Testing: A Paradigm Shift in Ovarian Cancer Screening 2024-04-01T18:04:45+00:00 Muhammad Asif Naveed dr.masifnaveed@gmail.com <p><span data-contrast="auto">Ovarian cancer is a fifth leading cause of cancer related mortality among women. According to the American Cancer Society, about 19,680 cases with ovarian cancer will be diagnosed in US women in 2024 and almost 12,740 women will lose their lives to ovarian cancer [1]. The currently used treatments involve chemotherapy and radiation with non-targeted therapies, drug resistance and undesirable side effects. These drawbacks have captivated the attention of scientists to discover some alternative strategies including Nanotechnology which is more convenient and target specific [2].</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">No screening tests are available for ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer is known as a “silent killer” and it usually remains undiagnosed until it reaches to an advanced stage. Scientists are working to explore non- invasive urine based test to make early detection possible.This urine based test along with family history, transvaginal ultrasound, and CA-125 blood tests will&nbsp; provide early-stage identification, diagnosis, and therapy for ovarian cancer, according to the researchers.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">Patients with ovarian cancer have certain type of peptides in urine that are analysed by nanotechnology. A new approach “Nanopore sensing” in which nanopores that measures any change in electric current of molecules passing through it and these changes will show the properties of proteins. This technique helps in identifying the peptides related to ovarian cancerFurther studies are required to identify peptides linked to ovarian cancer, but the techniques are not very cost effective and simple. Thirteen peptides were found and examined by the researchers, including ones that came from leucine-rich a-2 glycoprotein, a recognised biomarker found in the urine of ovarian cancer patients.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">Since the test is still in its early stages, more clinical trials will be needed to validate it and determine its efficacy in practical settings. The investigation of nanotechnology in medical diagnostics promises to usher in a new era of innovation by revolutionising not just the detection of ovarian cancer but also the entire field of disease diagnosis and treatment. Numerous people have hope as this approach includes the possibility of early ovarian cancer detection via a straightforward urine test. It emphasises to explore the scientific advancement with the aim of combating the deadliest cancer affecting women.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0}">&nbsp;</span></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1322 The Relationship between Social Media Addiction and Depression in Students of a Private College in Karachi 2024-04-01T18:04:26+00:00 Shanila Zulfiqar 1@gmail.com Jehangir Khan 1@gmail.com Afsha Bibi fawad52005@gmail.com Mahboob Ali 1@gmail.com Sarfaraz Samuel 1@gmail.com Shabnam Habib 1@gmail.com Shakeela Saddique 1@gmail.com . Shahtaj 1@gmail.com Shahid William 1@gmail.com Aziz Ur Rehman Yousufzai 1@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">In the last two decades</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0"> the use of social media has been increased in the world, the addiction of which can affect mental health of the users.</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">Objective: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">To find out relationship between social media addiction and depression among nursing students at a private college in Karachi. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">Methods: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">An analytical cross-sectional study design was used at Horizon School of Nursing and Health Sciences, Karachi. A total of 85 students were a</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">pproached </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">using purposive sampling, via google forms. Data </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">were</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0"> collected using a pre-structured questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic questions, Social Networking Addiction Scale and Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Data </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">were</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0"> analyzed using SPSS version 26</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">.0</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">Study results showed that </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">64.7% of the students were in 19-25 years of age, 65.9% were female, 65.9% unmarried, most of them 36.5% were in last year of nursing degree. Moreover, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">41.2% students have no addiction while 58.8% were addicted to social media, 20% students had no depression, 15.3% had mild to moderate and 64.7% students had severe depression. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">A moderate positive relationship was found between social media addiction and depression among nursing students </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">with s</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">pearman correlation coefficient (ρ=0.533) and p value &lt; 0.05. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">The study showed a moderate positive correlation between social media addiction and depression. Therefore, there is need of targeted interventions to prevent the nursing students from addiction of social media and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0">subsequently</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW151374690 BCX0"> from depression by holding educational seminars in schools and colleges.</span></span><span class="EOP BookmarkStart BookmarkEnd SCXW151374690 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6}"> </span></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1331 Clinico-Pathogenic Pattern of Maxillofacial Cysts – A Dental Health Issue 2024-04-01T18:03:41+00:00 Ghulam Saqulain ghulam_saqulain@yahoo.com Jawwad Ahmed drjawwad@hotmail.com Altaf Hussain draltafhussain74@yahoo.com Zaimal Shahan zaymalshahan@gmail.com <p>Maxillofacial cysts occur frequently and affect dental health. Though majority are asymptomatic, however they can result in disfigurement and affect dental health. Their frequency and clinical characteristics in the local context need to be addressed. <strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the frequency and clinical characteristics of maxillofacial cysts. <strong>Methods: </strong>A descriptive retrospective chart review of patients with maxillofacial cysts was conducted at Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Capital Hospital PGMI Islamabad. N= 58 cases of both genders and any age with maxillofacial cysts, who were diagnosed and operated from 1st January 2017 to 31st December, 2018 were studied. Age, gender, clinical features, surgical procedure performed and histological diagnosis were recorded. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS-23.0. <strong>Results: </strong> Study population revealed a mean age of 28.59+12.37 years and a male: female ratio of 1: 2.22. Dental abscesses were most common (14, 24.1%); followed by mucous retention (12, 20.7%); mucocoele (10, 17.2%); naso-alveolar and dental cysts 8 (13.8%) each; radicular, dentigerous and epidermal inclusion cyst 2 (3.4%) each. The commonest presentation was swelling [46(79.31%)] with right cheek [18(31%)] and left cheek [16(27.6%)] being commonest locations. Denker’s approach was adopted for 6 (10.3%) cases all being naso-alveolar cysts. Caldwell Luc’s approach was adopted for mucocoeles, dental cysts and all the cases of radicular and dentigerous cysts. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>Maxillofacial cysts are not uncommon, with dental cysts being the commonest cysts of odontogenic origin, mucocoele being commonest cyst of maxillary origin, naso-alveolar cysts arising from the nasolacrimal apparatus and dental abscess being commonest infective pathology.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1269 Pre-operative Anemia as a Risk Factor of Morbidity and Mortality in Valvular Surgeries 2024-04-01T18:05:04+00:00 Sardar Saud Abbas sardar.saud@gmail.com Muhammad Wasim Sajjad wasimsajjad7644@gmail.com Hamid Naeem hamidnaeem897@gmail.com Mujahid Ul Islam mujahid.islam@rmi.edu.pk Imran Khan mimrankhan174@gmail.com Ahsan Sabir 1@gmail.com Owais Imran owaisimran07872@gmail.com Umair Arshad 1@gmail.com Syed Nauman Shah snauman42@yahoo.com Rimshah Afridi 1@gmail.com <p>Pre-operative anemia can be a hindrance to speedy recovery and will increase blood transfusion intraoperative and post operatively. <strong>Objective: </strong>To find a correlation between preoperative anemia and the subsequent morbidity and mortality rates in patients undergoing valvular surgeries. <strong>Methods:</strong> A retrospective observational study, involving 493 valvular surgeries’ patients. All patients had the same anesthetic and surgical techniques. According to the WHO, anemia is a hemoglobin level &lt; 13 g/dl for men and &lt;12 g/dl for women. Clinical variables were compared using chi-square and independent <em>t</em>-test. <strong>Results:</strong> The patients received cardiac surgery for valvular heart disorders and had an average age of 42.2±14.1 years, with 60.9% being male. Most patients exhibited NYHA III (48.9%) and CCS III (36.5%) functional class symptoms. Highest comorbidity was hypertension (35.1%), followed by diabetes (14.4%) and dyslipidemia (6.5%). 43.2% were anemic and older than non-anemic individuals (P=0.02). Anemic people had a significantly greater incidence of HTN (P 0.02) and DM (P &lt; 0.001). Both groups exhibited identical perfusion and cross-clamp periods (P=0.4 vs. P=0.3). Though not statistically significant (P=0.08), non-anemic patients needed more intraoperative blood or blood product transfusions. Patients with anemia have worse outcomes, including increased rates of in-hospital mortality (P=0.03), extended artificial breathing (P=0.04), and postoperative blood/product transfusion (P&lt;0.001). 44.8% of anemic individuals needed RCC, 41.9% FFP, and 41.4% platelets. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> anemia is associated with the poorest post-operative results. There is conflicting information about the impact of preoperative anemia, particularly iron deficiency anemia, on valvular surgery.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1326 Evaluation of Oral Health Status and Dietary Habits in School Children among age 12-14 years; A Cross-Sectional Study 2024-04-01T18:04:08+00:00 Farwa Shahid amc17bds@gmail.com Farrah Pervaiz 1@gmail.com Muhammad Farrukh Habib farrukh.fssh@stmu.edu.pk Maryam Masood mariyamharoon12@gmail.com Azka Naseem dr.azkanaseem@gmail.com Humaira Mahmood humairatalha@hotmail.com <p>The prevalence of dental caries among Pakistani schoolchildren is rising. Current epidemiological statistics are required to determine treatment needs. These numbers are not presently accessible for elementary school students. <strong>Objectives:</strong> To assess the Oral health status of secondary school children 12 – 14 years through DMFT index and to determine the relationship between dietary habits and Dental caries of secondary school children aged 12 – 14 years via questionnaire. <strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted through interviews and clinical examinations in three Secondary schools of children based in Lahore. Number of participants were 398 children aged 12 to 14 years, encompassing both males and females. Oral health status and Dietary habits were evaluated through DMFT Index and Self-administered WHO Approved Questionnaire. Correlation of Demographic variables and Dietary habits of participants with High DMFT was observed. <strong>Results:</strong> The DMFT percentage was found to be 76% among 398 participants, indicating a significant burden of dental carries in our population. The Correlation between poor dietary habits and Dental caries was established through Chi square test. A statistically significant correlation (p&lt;0.05) was noted among Dental caries and high sugary intake. No significant relation was observed among other variables and Dental Caries. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Unsatisfactory Oral health status and poor food habits among school- aged youngsters. It calls for urgent action to improve oral health status and promote healthier dietary choices, seeking to minimize tooth decay frequency while improving general dental hygiene.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1319 Association between Parenting Style and Language Development in Children 2024-04-01T18:04:35+00:00 Sumaira Sadiq sumairak430@gmail.com Naima Farooq naima.farooq@riphah.edu.pk Rabia Mansoor Biyaahmed66@gmail.com Saadia shoukat Sadiashoukat1@gmail.com Ghulam Saqulain ghulam_saqulain@yahoo.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">Parenting style plays </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">important role</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> in the development of the children from birth to five years of age including language development as well</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">. </span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">Hence, parents can play </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">important role</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> in the development of their children because their quality of time matters</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">To </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> the association between parenting style and language development and to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">identify</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> the type of parenting style mostly use by the parents.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">Methods:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">This </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">c</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">ross-sectional study</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> with a sample of n=384 parents</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">,</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">was conducted at </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW211657742 BCX0">Riphah</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> International University, Islamabad from </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">1</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW211657742 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">st</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW211657742 BCX0">August,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> 2022 to 31</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW211657742 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">st</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW211657742 BCX0">January</span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW211657742 BCX0">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> 2023</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">. Parents of typical children</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> of both genders,</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">aged</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> birth to 36 months were</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> included</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">Basic demographical sheet, Par</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">enting style questionnaire and Receptive Expressive Emergent Language (</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">REEL</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">3rd editio</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">n were used for data collection. SPSS</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> versio</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">n 21</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">.0</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> was used for data analysis. Point-Biserial Correlation</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> was used </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> correlation between the parenting</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> style and language development </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">and p&lt;0.05 was considered significant.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">Results</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">Results </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">indicate</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> significant</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> (p&lt;0.001)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> relationship between parenting style and language development of children. The correlation of parenting style was low with receptive language but high with expressive</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> language. The results also </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">ind</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">icate</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> that parents used different parenting styles</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> with majority </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">225</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">(58.6%)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> using</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> authoritative parenting style and least </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">12</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">(3.1%) used permissive parenting style.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">Study concludes that parenting styles have </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">great impac</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">t</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> on language development of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> children. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">Di</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">fferent type</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> of parenting style</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> are </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">being</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0"> used among which authoritative parenting style is the most </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW211657742 BCX0">and permissive being the least common. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW211657742 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1284 Comparison Between Efficacy of Serial Glycolic Acid Peel with Modified Kligman’s Regimen Vs Modified Kligman’s Regimen Alone in Epidermal Melasma 2024-04-01T18:04:55+00:00 Nadia Akhtar Nadiaakhtar388@gmail.com Tahir Hassan drtahir.chandio@hotmail.com Muhammad Khurram Shahzad dr.khuram178@yahoo.com Naima Aliya naimaaliya@hotmail.com Sumera Yousaf sumerabilal4111@gmail.com Madiha Anwar drmadiha.1984@yahoo.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">The background of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">melasma</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> involves its psychological impact and multifactorial etiology, encompassing genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. Management strategies include sun protection and targeted treatments like glycolic acid peels and the modified </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">Kligman's</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> regimen to mitigate hyperpigmentation.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">Objective:</span></span> <span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW62114237 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">To </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">compare</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> the clinical outcome specifically </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">in terms </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW62114237 BCX0">of </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW62114237 BCX0"> MASI</span> <span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW62114237 BCX0">score in</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> epiderma</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">l</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> melasma patients treated with the Modified </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">Kligman's</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> regimen alone versus combined with 35% Glycolic acid peels.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">Methods: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">In this randomized controlled </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">trial,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> a total of 90 patients of epidermal </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">melasma</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> (with MASI score over 10</span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW62114237 BCX0">) aged</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> 18-55 years, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">visiting out-patient Dermatology department of Sheikh </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">Zayed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> Hospital, Rahim </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">Yar</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> Khan were enrolled via non-probability consecutive sampling. The patients were divided into two groups (group A and group B), each having 45 patients. Patients in group A received the Modified </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">Kligman's</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> regimen (hydroquinone 4%, 0.05% </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">tretinoin</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">, and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">fluocinolone</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">acetonide</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> 0.01%), and those in group B received </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW62114237 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">serial</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">35% Glycolic acid peels plus Modified </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">Kligman's</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> regimen over 3 months. Outcomes were measured at 4, 8, and 12-weeks post-treatment in terms of the MASI score.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> Most of the patients </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW62114237 BCX0">i</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">: e.75.5 % in group B showed moderate clinical improvement while most of the</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">patients in group A </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW62114237 BCX0">i</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">: e. 53.3% </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">observed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> only mild improvement. In terms of the mean MASI score improvement, the Group B patients </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">exhibited</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> a significantly greater reduction from baseline compared to the Group A (8.91±2.42 vs. 7.05±4.05, p=0.010)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">The combination of Glycolic acid peels plus Modified </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">Kligman's</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> regimen is </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">relatively more</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> efficacious as compared to Modified </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0">Kligman's</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62114237 BCX0"> regimen alone.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW62114237 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1327 Frequency of Dengue and Malaria Co-Infection in Patients Admitted in Jinnah Hospital, Lahore 2024-04-01T18:03:59+00:00 Shazia Siddique drshazia24@gmail.com Samina Saeed saminasaeedsaeed1@gmail.com Muhammad Anwar muhammad.anwar@rlmc.edu.pk Amina Umer aminaafgan@gmail.com Maria Anwar mariaanwar921@gmail.com Khadeeja Muneeha khadeejamuneeha@gmail.com Tanveer us Salam tanvirsalam@hotmail.com <p>Prevalence of malaria and dengue infection coexistence is increasing during endemic periods although causing quite similar symptoms and signs, the treatment of these two illnesses is different. Any suspicion of malaria in disease-endemic areas must be excluded with microscopy and/or rapid antigen test. <strong>Objective:</strong> To find out the incidence of co-infection of dengue and malaria based on clinical and hematological parameters in patients presenting with acute febrile illness. <strong>Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional study was done in the Medicine Unit of Jinnah hospital, Lahore from October - December 2022. 140 diagnosed as dengue fever by Non-Structural Protein 1 (NS1) and IgM were included in the study. All the cases were subject to a thorough medical examination i.e. complete battery summary of temperature together with the serology of Dengue, X-ray of the chest, abdominal ultrasound scan, renal function test (RFT), liver function test (LFT), malarial parasite slide, complete blood count with peripheral smear etc. Accordingly, the treatment was given to them with follow-up medical evaluation including detailed investigations. Data were entered and analyzed in SPSS version. 27.0 and presented as frequency and percentages. Chi square test was used to assess statistical significance with P &lt; .05. <strong>Results:</strong> Mean age of respondent was 35.5 <u>+</u> 15.6 years. Co-infection rate with malaria and severe disease along with prolong duration fever and persistent thrombocytopenia among subjects was15.0%. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Majority of co infected individuals were having severe disease, with subsequent development of disseminated intravascular coagulation and sepsis, responding well to anti-malarial treatments</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1324 Knowledge of Nurses Regarding Cardiac Arrhythmias in Tertiary Care Hospital 2024-04-01T18:04:17+00:00 Malka Azam Khan 1@gmail.com Aziz ur Rehman Yousafzai azizkhantrauma@gmail.com . Margret 3@gmail.com . Huma 4@gmail.com Afsha Bibi 4@gmail.com Jehangir Khan 3@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0">An arrhythmia is a disorder in which the heart beats irregularly, too slow, or too fast, an arrhythmia can be harmless to </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW10083493 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0">l</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0">ife-threatening</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0">.</span> </span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW10083493 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0">Objectives</span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW10083493 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0">: </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0">To assess the knowledge of nurses working in tertiary care hospital regarding cardiac arrhythmias of inpatients.</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0">Methods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0">A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data from a random sample of 132 staff nurses from various clinical areas of public and private hospitals through structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0">.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0">The findings from this study show that the knowledge level of nurses regarding cardiac arrhythmias can be categorized into two groups: poor and good. From the total 132 nurses, 53 (40.2%) had poor and 79 (59.8%) had good level of knowledge regarding the information of the nurses on cardiac arrhythmias.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0">:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0">Based on the findings, it is recommended that continuous education and training programs should be implemented to keep nurses updated with the latest evidence-based practices in the care of patients with cardiac arrhythmias. This will ensure that they </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0">can</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW10083493 BCX0"> provide safe and high-quality care to patients. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW10083493 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/795 Synthesis, Characterization and Drug Release Study of Novel Guided Tissue Regeneration Membranes Containing Drug Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles 2024-04-01T18:05:15+00:00 Muhammad Asad Ghaffar 1@gmail.com Maleeha Nayyer 1@gmail.com Muhammad Kaleem 1@gmail.com Muhammad Azhar 1@gmail.com Asma Tufail Shah 1@gmail.com Safi Ullah Khan safiullah1990.sk@gmail.com <p>Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease which can cause the destruction of the supporting tissues of the tooth leading to tooth loss. The guided tissue regeneration is considered as a gold standard for its treatment but the re-infection of surgical site limits its overall success. <strong>Objective:</strong> To synthesize novel monolayer guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane containing drug loaded chitosan nanoparticles and to evaluate the drug release from the synthesized GTR membranes. <strong>Methods: </strong>The chitosan nanoparticles containing ciprofloxacin were synthesized by the ionotropic gelation method and these synthesized nanoparticles were added into chitosan GTR membrane fabricated by the freeze gelation method. For comparison GTR membrane was prepared as a control by freeze gelation method in which the drug was added directly. The prepared membranes were characterized by the SEM and FTIR. The drug release was measured from the membrane samples in the phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days. <strong>Results:</strong> The GTR membrane containing the ciprofloxacin loaded chitosan nanoparticles showed fast drug release as compared to the membrane in which the ciprofloxacin was added directly. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The inclusion of antibiotic loaded chitosan nanoparticles can increase the drug release from GTR membrane.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1328 Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence and its Association with Chronic Constipation, Chronic Cough, Urinary Tract Infections, and Parity during the Third Trimester of Pregnancy 2024-04-01T18:03:50+00:00 Kashaf Shaikh skashaf79@gmail.com Urooj Zahra uroojzahramalik76@gmail.com Muhammad Abdullah stabdulla1@gmail.com Sana Batool sana.batool.malik@gmail.com Umme Habiba ume6496@gmail.com Sara Khan sarahkhan7999@gmail.com Mamoona Tasleem Afzal moona.dpt@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">Urinary incontinence</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0"> (UI)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0"> refers to involuntary urine leakage. It can affect anyone, although it is more common among pregnant women. Incontinence is classified into three types: Stress, urge, and mixed urinary incontinence</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">To</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0"> was to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0"> the prevalence of urinary incontinence and its association with chronic constipation, chronic cough, urinary tract infection, and parity during the third trimester of pregnancy. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">Methods</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0"> A</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0"> cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in the twin cities of Pakistan</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0"> between April 2022 and September 2022</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">The data </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">were</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0"> recruited from 184 pregnant women aged between 18-</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">45</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0"> years,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0"> who were in their third trimester. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">A self-structured questionnaire was used to collect demographic data as well as assessments of parity, chronic cough, chronic constipation, and urinary tract infections. QUID was used to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0"> the kind of urine incontinence, and the ICIQ-UI-SF was employed to record the frequency and severity of the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">condition.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0"> Results</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">: </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">The average age of the participants </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">was 27.8±4.7. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">Out of 184 participants, 91 had urine incontinence, with 52 (27.8%) having stress urinary incontinence and 39 (21.3%) having urge urinary incontinence.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">Urinary incontinence symptoms were severe (N=36, 19.1%) in most subjects and moderate (N=26, 14.2%) in others. Chronic cough and parity had a significant relationship with urine incontinence (p&lt;0.05)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">Conclusions</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0"> The results imply that urinary incontinence was moderately prevalent. Urge urine incontinence was less common than stress incontinence. Multiparity and chronic cough were strongly associated with U</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">I</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28136598 BCX0">.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW28136598 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1341 Computational Approaches To Design Multi Epitope-Based Vaccine Designing of Dengue virus -2 Enveloped Protein For Dengue Virus 2024-04-05T10:03:29+00:00 Hamna Tariq hamna.tariq@uo.edu.pk Mehvish Mumtaz mehvishgcuf@gmail.com Tuba Aslam tubaaslamctn@gmail.com Hafiz Muhammad Husnain Azam hafizhusnainbiotech@gmail.com Nazim Hussain nazim.camb@pu.edu.pk Muhammad Ali Mod.ali.pk@gmail.com Hadia Sarfraz hadiasarfraz1301@gmail.com Moeen Zulfiqar moeenzulfiqar27@gmail.com Zulqarnain Baqar zulqarnainzb14@gmail.com Haris Munir harismunir44@gmail.com <p>Dengue Fever (DF) is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes and is a global concern. A successful vaccine for dengue should induce both neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immunity. However, no vaccine currently exists for DF. A multi-epitope vaccine offers a promising strategy for preventing such infections.<strong> Objective:</strong> To create a dengue virus-2 strain multi-epitope vaccine that is safe, non-allergic, and stimulates a strong immune response. <strong>Methods:</strong> Leveraging <em>in silico</em> tools, we retrieved and analyzed Dengue virus-2 protein sequences, determining antigenicity using VaxiJen version 2.0 and assessing allergenicity using AllerTop. T-cell epitopes were identified via Immune Epitope Database (IEBD) server for Major Histocompatibility Complex -I (MHC-I) and Major Histocompatibility Complex -II (MHC-II) binding and B-cell epitopes were anticipated through IEBD Linear Epitope Prediction Tool v2.0. Analysis of population coverage estimated the prevalence of MHC alleles interacting with the identified epitopes. A multi-epitope vaccine construct integrated adjuvants, universal linkers, and epitopes, evaluated for physicochemical properties, toxicity, secondary, and tertiary structures. <strong>Results:</strong> Antigenicity analysis identified highly antigenic Dengue virus-2 protein sequences with low allergenicity. T-cell epitopes revealed multiple epitopes with diverse MHC-I and MHC-II affinity, encompassing conserved regions for potential universal vaccine development. Nine non-toxic, non-allergenic B-cell epitopes were identified. Population coverage analysis demonstrated over 71% prevalence of MHCs binding to identified epitopes across diverse populations. Physicochemical assessments revealed favorable characteristics, including immunogenicity and stability. Tertiary structure prediction illustrated the vaccine's 3D arrangement, validated through Ramachandran plots, exhibiting high-quality protein structure. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> This multieiptope based vaccine is more immunogenic but further in-vitro and in-vivo study is required for its clinical use</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1337 Effects of Articulated & Static Ankle Foot Orthotics on Gait Kinematics: Foot Drop Patients Perspective 2024-04-01T18:03:31+00:00 Aqsa Khan aqsakhan208@yahoo.com Aqeel Ahmed Khan aqeelahmed644@hotmail.com Irzam Haroon irxam13@gmail.com Wafa Khattak dr.wafakhattak@gamil.com Muhammad Kashif kashifsial398@gmail.com Muhammad Kamran drkami772@gmail.com Ghulam Saqulain ghulam_saqulain@yahoo.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0">Foot drop is a common occurrence following stroke. Ankle foot orthotics (AFO) are used to correct drop foot deformity with several AFOs available to choose from. Literature suggests research on the impact of articulated AFO on gait. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0"> To </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0"> the impact of static/ rigid and articulated AFO on gait kinematics in foot drop cases. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0">Methods: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0">This cross-sectional study involved 100 unilateral drop foot cases from the PIPOS Rehabilitation Services Program from September 2019 to February 2020</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0"> The sample included both genders aged 2-15 years. Gait Lab data were used to compare the results while wearing static AFO and articulated AFO and analyzed using SPSS version 21. T-test was used to see difference between groups with p-value &lt;0.05 considered significant</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0"> Articulated AFO is significantly (p&lt;0.001) better than rigid AFO in terms of step length, stride time, and cadence. Articulated AFO is significantly better at </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0">initial</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0"> contact (p&lt;0.001), mid stance (Hip p=0.006, Knee &amp; ankle p&lt;0.001) and terminal stance (p&lt;0.001) than rigid AFO. For Initial Swing, there was a significant (p&lt;0001) difference between AFOs for extension at knee and ankle joint. At mid-swing articulated AFO provided significantly (p&lt;0.001) better flexion at hip and knee joint. At terminal swing articulated AFO provided significantly (p&lt;0.001) better flexion at the hip and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0">required</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0"> extension at the knee. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0">Conclusions: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0">This study </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0">identified</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW14332181 BCX0">Articulated AFO was superior to rigid AFO in improving functional mobility and gait consistency &amp; lowering the risk of falling. Articulated AFOs were significantly better in terms of step length, stride time, and cadence.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW14332181 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1371 Interplay of Sleep Quality, Insomnia and Quality of Life in Individuals Undergoing Hemodialysis 2024-04-04T18:03:40+00:00 Farheen Saboor farheensaboor2@gmail.com Nudra Malik nudramalik@gmail.com <p>Insomnia is the most commonly occurring disorder of sleep experienced by individuals with chronic kidney disease. It is associated with physical and psychological health issues specifically the ones on hemodialysis. <strong>Objectives: </strong>Insomnia is the most commonly occurring disorder of sleep experienced by individuals undergoing hemodialysis. It is associated with physical and psychological health issues and could reduce the quality of life of these patients. The aim of the current study is to find out the frequency of insomnia as well as to examine the relationship between sleep quality and quality of life in individuals on hemodialysis. <strong>Methods:</strong> It was a cross sectional study and non-probability purposive sampling technique was used for selecting the sample of patients undergoing hemodialysis from a dialysis center of Lahore. The sample consisted of both men and women (N=100) with age range 40 and above (M=51.40, SD=7.25). Insomnia, general sleep scale and quality of life scale were used to collect data from the participants. <strong>Results:</strong> Insomnia was found to be prevalent in 6% of the patients. QOL was significantly poor in individuals with insomnia and poor sleep quality as compared to the ones with better sleep. Older age, increasing duration of hemodialysis and poor sleep quality were significant predictors of quality of life in our sample. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Insomnia and/or poor quality sleep have a detrimental effect on patients’ quality of life in kidney disease. These findings can provide basis for awareness campaigns and health promotion programs aimed at timely diagnosis and management of insomnia and improvement in sleep quality as well as quality of life in individuals undergoing hemodialysis.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1336 Distress Tolerance and Mental Health Problems among University Students 2024-04-04T18:03:50+00:00 Nida Anwar 1@gmail.com Maryam Shahzadi mafia.mahak@yahoo.com Mafia Shahzadi 1@gmail.com Sanober Khanum 1@gmail.com Madeeha Imtiaz 1@gmail.com <p>Academic stress is one of the major reasons which influence students’ mental health. Tolerance significantly contributes to managing academic pressure, a sense of competence, and parental and social expectations while lacking causes mental health issues. Objective: To explore the relationship between distress tolerance and mental health problems among university students. Methods: 500 students from different universities of Faisalabad. The age range of the participants covered the years 20 to 40. The sample was taken using a purposive sampling technique. The following measures were used to assess the findings i.e. demographic form, distress tolerance scale, depression, anxiety and stress scale were used to explore the relationship between distress tolerance and mental health problems among university students. Results: Findings indicate a significant relationship between distress tolerance and depression (r = -.182, P &lt; 0.01), distress tolerance and anxiety (r = -.243, P &lt; 0.01), and distress tolerance and stress (-.252, P &lt; 0.01) among university students. Conclusions: It is concluded that the level of tolerance significantly helps to overcome daily life stressors, anxieties, and depressive symptoms among the students.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1338 Evaluation of In-vivo anti-inflammatory activity of methyl 2-(5-butyl-6-thioxo-1, 3, 5-thiadiazinan-3yl), butanoate 2024-04-05T18:03:43+00:00 Usman Muhammad 1@gmail.com Rahim Ullah 1@gmail.com Zakia Subhan 1@gmail.com Haji Bahadar bahadar@kmu.edu.pk Sher Ahmad 1@gmail.com Abdur Rasheed 1@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">Inflammation is the body's way of fending off damage. Nonetheless, continuous and increasing inflammation may lead to the development of some chronic illnesses. It is still </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">needed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0"> to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">evaluate </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">new and safe anti-inflammatory therapies because existing medications have major side effects.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">Objective</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">o examine a novel compound's anti-inflammatory properties of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">methyl 2-(5-butyl-6-thioxo-1, 3, 5-thiadiazinan-3yl), butanoate (</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">MBTTB</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0"> in albino mice models. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">Method</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">: </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">To test the anti-inflammatory effects </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">in vivo</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">, carrageenan-induced paw edema in albino mice of both sexes was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">utilized</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">, and inflammation was measured by </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">using Digital </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW160986654 BCX0">Plethysmometer</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">. After extraction of carrageenan induced paw edematous, tissue</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">level of inflammatory mediators like TNF-α, IL-1β, NF-ĸβ, and cox2 was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">ascertained</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0"> by Western Blot analysis. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">Result</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">Based on in-vivo anti-inflammatory effects, compound MBTTB was shown to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">exhibit</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0"> a maximum percentage inhibition of 16.7% after 1 hour, which is </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">comparable to the standard drug</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">s 12.8%.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">Following three hours, compound MBTTB showed the highest percentage inhibition of 23.2%, while the standard was 14.5%.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0"> Compound MBTTB showed the highest percentage inhib</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">ition after five hours (26.2 %</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">, while the standard was 15.4%</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">. The expression of many mediators' proteins, including TNF-α, IL-1β, NF-</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">ĸ</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">β, and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">COX-2</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">, was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">ascertained</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">. The computational analysis was carried out to forecast the level of decline of various mediators, including </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">Tumor Necrosis Factor-α</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">(TNF) </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">I</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">nterleukin</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">-1β, NF-ĸβ, and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">COX-2</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">When considered as a whole, our current research </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">indicates</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0"> that MBTTB is </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">a viable</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0">option</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160986654 BCX0"> for preventing inflammation in mice that has been caused by carrageenan in edematous paw. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW160986654 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1321 Knowledge of Family Planning among Nursing Students at a Private Institute Karachi 2024-04-08T18:04:30+00:00 Jehangir Khan 1@gmail.com Mahboob Ali 1@gmail.com Afsha Bibi fawad52005@gmail.com Sakina Maqsad 1@gmail.com Saima Tehseen 1@gmail.com Sadiq Hussain Shah 1@gmail.com Rukhsana Samson Javed 1@gmail.com Sabir Naveed 1@gmail.com Salima Zeeshan 1@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0">Family planning (FP) is defined as the whole effort made by a couple to prevent pregnancy and to create some space among their children. FP helps in avoiding undesirable pregnancies thus promote maternal and child health. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0">Objective: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0">To evaluate the knowledge of FP among nursing students.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0"> Methods: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0">A descriptive cross-sectional study was used at Horizon School of Nursing with a total of 80 students selected through purposive sampling technique. SPSS version 26 was used for data analysis. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0">Study results showed that 45% of the students were in age group 20-30 years, 61.2% were female and if we talk about spouse education status all of them were literate, most of the respondent's monthly income was between 30,000-50,000 PKR, 47.5% were having no children, 40% having 1-2 children, 50% of them wished to have 1-2 children, most of them (48.8%) had 1-2 years interval between their children, majority of the respondents (88.8%) had heard of FP, the source of information regarding FP mostly (56.2%) were hospitals, availability of FP services known by respondents were private hospitals (83.8%) and methods of FP known by the students mostly (42.5%) were condoms. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0">Conclusions: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0">The study showed that only 42.5% of the students knew the condom method of FP, 23.7% withdrawal methods, 20% oral contraceptive pills, and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0">a very low</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW110640225 BCX0"> percentage of other methods of FP which need to be enhanced by conducting seminars and other awareness programs in nursing schools and colleges. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW110640225 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240,&quot;469777462&quot;:[9016],&quot;469777927&quot;:[0],&quot;469777928&quot;:[4]}"> </span></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences