X-ray Radiography of Bone Fractures Associated With Road Traffic Accidents RTA

Bone Fractures Associated With Road Traffic Accidents


  • Samama Ghuman University Institute of Radiological Sciences and Medical Imaging Technology, The University of Lahore, Gujrat, Campus
  • Akash John The University of Chenab, Gujrat
  • Abid Ali Department of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Chenab, Gujrat
  • Muhammad Ahmad Naeem The University of Chenab, Gujrat
  • Maryam Riaz University Institute of Radiological Sciences and Medical Imaging Technology, The University of Lahore, Gujrat, Campus




X-ray, Bone fractures, Road Traffic Accidents, Incidence


One of the leading causes of bone fractures are Road Traffice Accidents (RTAs), they are perhaps the most prevalent causes of mortality in individuals. Objective: To investigate the prevalence and types of bone fractures in patients who have been involved in a road traffic collisions in the city of Gujranwala, Pakistan. Methods: It was a cross-sectional analysis at the orthopedic department of the DHQ/Teaching Hospital in Gujranwala, all patients with RTA-related fractures who underwent x-rays were included after written informed consent. The study included a total of 100 patients, all of which had suffered fractures as a result of traffic incidents from January 13th, 2022 to April 13th, 2022, the research was completed in three months. The obtained data were entered and analyzed by utilizing IBM SPSS Statistics 26.0. Results: There were 35 females and 65 males in the study, and according to the age distribution, 34% of those aged 26 to 35 years had a higher risk of fracture. Femur 37.7%, tibia 21.3%, fibula 16.4%, radius 2.5%, ankle joint 1.6%, humerus 6.6%, knee joint 2.5%, elbow joint 4.9%, and thumb and spine 0.8% are among the bones that have been fractured. Moreover, no incidents of skull fractures were recorded. Conclusion: Bone fractures are much more common in men than in women. In road traffic accidents, the most common bone fracture is the femur, which occurs most frequently in people who ride motorbikes or cycles, whereas, the transverse bone fracture is the most prevalent type of bone fracture.


Wedel VL, Galloway A. Broken bones: anthropological analysis of blunt force trauma. Charles C Thomas Publisher; 2013.

Anibor E, Obaroefe M, Shagamu JE. A radiographic survey of bone fractures at Celian Clinic, Ughelli in Delta State, Nigeria. GSC Advanced Research and Reviews. 2021; 7(1):117-22. doi: 10.30574/gscarr.2021.7.1.0028.

Rajarajan J. Clinico-Pathological Correlation and Assessment of Burn Wounds (Doctoral dissertation, Thanjavur Medical College, Thanjavur).

Burr DB. Why bones bend but don’t break. Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions, 2011.

Aloudah AA, Almesned FA, Alkanan AA, Alharbi T. Pattern of Fractures Among Road Traffic Accident Victims Requiring Hospitalization: Single-institution Experience in Saudi Arabia. Cureus. 2020 Jan; 12(1):e6550. doi: 10.7759/cureus.6550. PMID: 32042524; PMCID: PMC6996471.

Tapera R. Development of guidelines to reduce road accidents amongst community members in Botswana: a public health issue (Doctoral Dissertation).

Dalal K, Lin Z, Gifford M, Svanström L. Economics of global burden of road traffic injuries and their relationship with health system variables. International journal of preventive medicine. 2013 Dec; 4(12):1442. PMID: 24498501; PMCID: PMC3898451.

Khan NA, Jhanjhi NZ, Brohi SN, Usmani RS, Nayyar A. Smart traffic monitoring system using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Computer Communications. 2020 May; 157:434-43. doi: 10.1016/j.comcom.2020.04.049.

Rockett IR, Regier MD, Kapusta ND, Coben JH, Miller TR, Hanzlick RL, Todd KH, Sattin RW, Kennedy LW, Kleinig J, Smith GS. Leading causes of unintentional and intentional injury mortality: United States, 2000–2009. American journal of public health. 2012 Nov; 102(11):e84-92. PMid: 22994256, PMCid: PMC3477930, doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300960.

Organization WH. Global status report on road safety 2018: summary. World Health Organization, 2018.

Gómez-Barrena E, Rosset P, Lozano D, Stanovici J, Ermthaller C, Gerbhard F. Bone fracture healing: cell therapy in delayed unions and nonunions. Bone. 2015 Jan; 70:93-101. PMid: 25093266 DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2014.07.033.

Song B, Ehlig-Economides C, Economides MJ. Design of multiple transverse fracture horizontal wells in shale gas reservoirs. InSPE Hydraulic fracturing technology conference. 2011 Jan . OnePetro. doi: 10.2118/140555-MS.

Mathison C, Chaudhary R, Beaupre L, Reynolds M, Adeeb S, Bouliane M. Biomechanical analysis of proximal humeral fixation using locking plate fixation with an intramedullary fibular allograft. Clinical Biomechanics. 2010 Aug; 25(7):642-6. PMid:20483189, doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2010.04.006.

Shahzad M, Noor-ul-Hassan RM, Shams A, Ibrahim A, Shahid MA, Fatima N, Yasir M, Babar A, Rose S, Khan RM. Frequency of Bone Fractures Detected by Plain Radiography and Keeping CT as Gold Standard. Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing. ISSN 2422-8419.

Letournel E, Judet R. Fractures of the acetabulum. Springer Science & Business Media; 2012 Dec 6.

Al-Ayyoub M, Al-Zghool D. Determining the type of long bone fractures in x-ray images. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications. 2013 Aug; 10(8):261-70.

Ostrom AL, Parasuraman A, Bowen DE, Patrício L, Voss CA. Service research priorities in a rapidly changing context. Journal of service research. 2015 May; 18(2):127-59. doi: 10.1177/1094670515576315.

Dimililer K. IBFDS: intelligent bone fracture detection system. Procedia computer science. 2017 Jan; 120:260-7. doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2017.11.237.

Indu MA, Suvalakshmi Ms. Survey on Various Techniques for Bone Fracture Analysis using Image Processing Methods. Journal of Education: Rabindrabharati University. ISSN : 0972-7175.

Martí‐Bonmatí L, Sopena R, Bartumeus P, Sopena P. Multimodality imaging techniques. Contrast media & molecular imaging. 2010 Jul; 5(4):180-9. doi: 10.1002/cmmi.393.

Joshi D, Singh TP. A survey of fracture detection techniques in bone X-ray images. Artificial Intelligence Review. 2020 Aug; 53(6):4475-517. doi: 10.1007/s10462-019-09799-0.

Smith TO, Drew B, Toms AP, Jerosch-Herold C, Chojnowski AJ. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance arthrography for triangular fibrocartilaginous complex injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 2012 May; 94(9):824-32. PMid: 22552672. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.J.01775.

Mall PK, Singh PK, Yadav D. Glcm based feature extraction and medical x-ray image classification using machine learning techniques. In2019 IEEE Conference on Information and Communication Technology. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) xplore. 2019 Dec: 1-6. doi: 10.1109/CICT48419.2019.9066263.

Tian TP, Chen Y, Leow WK, Hsu W, Howe TS, Png MA. Computing neck-shaft angle of femur for x-ray fracture detection. InInternational Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2003 Aug:82-89. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-45179-2_11.

Omoke NI, Ekumankama FO. Incidence and pattern of extremity fractures seen in accident and emergency department of a Nigerian teaching hospital. Nigerian journal of surgery. 2020; 26(1):28-34. PMid: 32165833 PMCid: PMC7041343 doi: 10.4103/njs.NJS_42_19.



DOI: 10.54393/pjhs.v3i01.56
Published: 2022-06-30

How to Cite

Ghuman, S. ., John, A. ., Ali, A. ., Ahmad Naeem, M. ., & Riaz, M. . (2022). X-ray Radiography of Bone Fractures Associated With Road Traffic Accidents RTA: Bone Fractures Associated With Road Traffic Accidents. Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences, 3(01), 30–33. https://doi.org/10.54393/pjhs.v3i01.56



Original Article


Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>