Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs <p><strong>Title of Journal: </strong><strong>Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences</strong></p> <p><strong> (ISSN Online: 2790-9352, Print: 2790-9344)</strong></p> <p><strong>Frequency: </strong><strong>Monthly (w.e.f July-2022)</strong></p> <p><strong>Affiliated with:</strong> Lahore Medical Research Center</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href="http://www.lmrc.com.pk">www.lmrc.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Published By:</strong> CrossLinks International Publishers (CLIP), Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href="http://www.clip.com.pk">www.clip.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 590-Karim Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p>Lahore Medical Research Center has published <strong>"Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences</strong><strong> (PJHS)</strong>"; A Monthly, Double Blind peer-reviewed open access Journal. The aim of the Journal is to provide a platform for allied health professionals to publish their research work. All materials, articles and information published in <strong>PJHS</strong> will be peer-reviewed.</p> <p>Research papers, Short communications, Review or mini-reviews, Commentaries, Perspectives, opinion, Meta-analysis, Case reports, Case studies, Case-control studies</p> <p>Reviews on recent progress in Health Sciences are commissioned by the editors. The purpose of the <strong>PJHS</strong> is to publish scientific and technical research papers to bring attention of international researchers, scientists, academicians, health care professionals towards recent advancements in Health Sciences. The articles are collected in the form of reviews, original studies, clinical studies etc. It may serve as a global platform for scientists in relevant fields to connect and mutually share ideas. This journal is open to all the research professionals whose work fall within our scope. </p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Accreditation:</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Approved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the year 2023-24</strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Fee &amp; Subscription Charges</strong></span></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National) Rs 35000 / Article</p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ) 200 USD / Article</p> <p>Printed Version (Selected Articles on Authors Request) : Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Annual Subscription for Printed Versions</strong></span></p> <p>For Institutes: Rs 20,000/ Annually</p> <p>Single Copy (Selected Articles): Rs 2500/-</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></span></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong><u>Submissions</u></strong></p> <p>Submission are welcome and may be submitted here: <u><a href="mailto:editor@thejas.com.pk">editor@thejas.com.pk</a></u></p> en-US <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments</p> <p><a href="mailto:editor@tjas.lmrc.com.pk">editor@thejas.com.pk</a></p> editor@thejas.com.pk (Prof. Dr. Riffat Mehboob) oric@lmrc.com.pk (Khurram Mehboob) Wed, 31 Jan 2024 17:29:08 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.7 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Neuroplasticity: A Shrouded Self-Recovery https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1287 <p>The human brain is a replica of a well-integrated universe within which light fleets in swathes and heralds the secrets of its unprecedented steadfastness and coherence. The human universe, called brain has been designed capacious enough to withhold the impacts of barter along with the adroitness of guiding the fluid dynamics of majestic human creatures. It was not until 1948 that Jerzy Konorski coined this neuro-physiological dexterity into the term ‘neuroplasticity’. The word is the true depiction of its functional mastery over making sophisticated humans adapt to any sort of internal or external change in the environment, through sharing the intense impulses of response with the neurons in closer proximity. This commitment to adaptation leads to either a renovated, recess, or re-establishment relay of neuron connections in brain, named synapses. &nbsp;</p> <p>This mechanism of self-recovery has been recently incorporated into practical therapy, owing to the flush of discoveries, enlightening both the people of science and laymen with its benefits. Neuroplasticity has been applied in the models of nervous degeneration, cognition, learning, and memory decline translating into flabbergasting outcomes among patients of Alzheimer, stroke, traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, and aging deterioration [1]. The technique has also unwound its potencies to psychologist and psychosocial activists that now recommend neuroplasticity-stimulating exercises to patients of depression and anger issues.</p> <p>A Question arises on how such a complete package of control is achieved by humans. Research shows and argues that it can be attained in a myriad of ways, no one roadmap has yet been formulated. Certain proteins, molecular switches, high fat diets, muscle vibrations, enforced habitual reinforcements, and conditional piquing of neurons’ originator cells onset and drive the plasticity of the neurons. A contemporary scientific investigation on the effects of virtual reality exposure to rats concluded that it fine-tuned the hippocampus region of the brain unveiled through ‘eta’ waves that were associated with storing memory [2]. Debates are underway whether neuroplasticity is the facilitator of new cranial rewiring or simply an enhancer of existing brain abilities.</p> <p>Future implications of neuroplasticity include its manifestation in the guise of artificial intelligence (AI). The success in proliferation of AI has been counter-argued with the extent of its ability to interpret and respond to unexpected and untaught stimuli. But the unearthing of systems such as SynapShot, a real time fluorescent apparatus developed to visualize brain’s impulse connections,&nbsp; heralds a before long translation of neuroplastic codes into machine language [3]. To arrive at such approaches the need of hour is to fully unlock and explore the mightiness of the plasticity horizons of the neurons, that imitate the ideology of galaxies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Muhammad Asif Naveed Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1287 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Health Benefits and Consequences Associated with Uric Acid Among Exercise Performers https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1268 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW130414398 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW130414398 BCX0">Uric acid (UA) is a waste product formed when chemicals called purines break down. UA perform various functions such as a stimulant of the immune system, urate is an effective antioxidant, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW130414398 BCX0">maintains</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW130414398 BCX0"> blood pressure in a salt-poor environment and works against certain health diseases of the nervous system due to its antioxidant properties. Being an important biochemical agent, people do not give much importance due to insufficient knowledge about UA. This review study was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW130414398 BCX0">initiated</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW130414398 BCX0"> to assess the benefits and consequences associated with UA among exercise performers. </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW130414398 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW130414398 BCX0">One hundred (100) articles were placid into two (02) categories, i.e. (a) articles about health benefits of exercise and complication or penalties of UA (b) articles about the linkage or association of UA and Exercise. Moreover, the study was limited to the primary two magnitudes of UA, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW130414398 BCX0">i.e.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW130414398 BCX0"> health benefits and consequences or risks of UA and Association of UA and Exercise. A literature search was done based on predefined keywords of the study. Finally, two (02) foremost search sources were used for assembling pertinent literature, and thus thirty-three (34) research articles were entertained per the study's recommended criteria. The categorization of studies grounded on quality and quantity was based on the established standards of the current review study</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW130414398 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW130414398 BCX0">. The existing literature </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW130414398 BCX0">disclosed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW130414398 BCX0"> that different managerial strategies such as eating low-purine foods, eluding certain medications, conserving a moderate weight, evading </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW130414398 BCX0">alcohol</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW130414398 BCX0"> and sugary drinks, drinking coffee, increasing vitamin C intake, eating cherries and execution of low or moderate-intensity exercise have a significant effect on UA concentration.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW130414398 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Malik Irfan Munir, Zafar Iqbal Butt, Alamgir Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1268 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Color Doppler Ultrasound to Evaluate the Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis in Diabetic Patients https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1229 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW224341443 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW224341443 BCX0">Diabetes mellitus </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW224341443 BCX0">is one of the main risk factors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and its occurrence is on the rise.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW224341443 BCX0">In patients with deep vein stenosis, it is quite prevalent. Deep vein thrombosis is a serious health issue in the United States that </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW224341443 BCX0">impacts</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW224341443 BCX0"> more than 2.5 million individuals each year. We searched a variety of search engines and databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, and NCBI, for papers </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW224341443 BCX0">pertaining to</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW224341443 BCX0"> our s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW224341443 BCX0">ubject. Data on the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW224341443 BCX0">assessment of lower limb DVT in diabetic patients were extracted from just 20 articles.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW224341443 BCX0">The current stud</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW224341443 BCX0">y examined </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW224341443 BCX0">the assessment</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW224341443 BCX0"> of DVT in the lower leg</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW224341443 BCX0">.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW224341443 BCX0"> Individuals with diabetes experience different rates of deep vein thrombosis. The result is not statistically significant, though. The anatomic location of the thrombus </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW224341443 BCX0">indicated</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW224341443 BCX0"> that patients with diabetes had a higher likelihood of involvement of the popliteal vein, femoral vein, and common femoral vein compared to non-diabetics.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW224341443 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Muhammad Ahmad Raza, Abdul Rauf, Bushra Akmal Khan, Muhammad Asad Alam, Laamia Altuf, Aftab Alloudin, Saman Fatima Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1229 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Physical Therapy Intervention and Gene Therapy on Muscular Dystrophies, Current Status and Future Perspectives: A Narrative Review https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1253 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW54316334 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW54316334 BCX0">Muscular dystrophies form a collection of genetic disorders marked by progressive muscle weakness and degeneration. The identification of </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW54316334 BCX0">the majority of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW54316334 BCX0"> responsible genes has enabled precise diagnosis and subtype-specific anticipatory care. Over the years, various therapies, encompassing genetic, cellular, and pharmacological approaches, have </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW54316334 BCX0">emerged</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW54316334 BCX0"> for muscular dystrophies. This narrative review thoroughly explores the ongoing developments in muscular dystrophy therapeutics, including antisense therapy, CRISPR, gene replacement, cell therapy, based gene therapy Adeno-associated viral vector (AAV), and disease-modifying small molecule compounds. The review is particularly significant as it reflects advancements in supportive medicine that have altered the standard of care, leading to an overall improvement in the quality of life, clinical </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW54316334 BCX0">course</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW54316334 BCX0"> and survival for affected individuals. In this study, our focus is on the clinical manifestations, molecular pathogenesis, diagnostic strategies, and therapeutic advancements related to this group of conditions. The study involved the review of 20 pertinent English-language articles, publications, reports, and online resources.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW54316334 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Hafsa Abid, Saleh Shah, Ali Ahmed, Nazira Habib, Mah Bibi, Muhammad Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1253 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Anxiety, Depressive Symptoms and Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Self-Esteem among Male Nursing Students https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1249 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0">Self-esteem is an individual attitude about his personality and the gratitude of his worth. It signifies an honest, suitable, steady appreciation of one’s value.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="عنوان 2 Char">Objectives</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0">:</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0"> To find out anxiety, depressive symptoms and socio-demographic factors associated with self-esteem among male nursing students.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="عنوان 2 Char">Methods</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0">:</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0"> A cross-sectional research design was selected and conducted with 155 undergraduate students of nursing students at </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0">College o</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0">f Nursing and Midwifery, Sindh Government Hospital, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0">Liaquatabad</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0">, Karachi. The Urdu version of the Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0">validated</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0"> questionnaires were used to collect data.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="عنوان 2 Char">Results</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="عنوان 2 Char">:</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="عنوان 2 Char"> The study findings showed that 137 students (88.39%) had normal self-esteem levels, and 18 students (11.61%) had low self-esteem. Analysis of Self-esteem about socio-demographic variables revealed an insignificant association with age, gender, marital status, family type, socioeconomic levels, family income, residence, substance use, and education program. The only statistically significant association was found between the current degree year and self-esteem levels (p = 0.046).</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="عنوان 2 Char">There was a weak statistically significant negative relationship between self-esteem and anxiety depressive symptoms ((r = -0.221; p &lt; 0.01).</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="عنوان 2 Char">Conclusions</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="عنوان 2 Char">:</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171493669 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="عنوان 2 Char">The current research study concluded that nursing students with normal self-esteem levels were also suffering from anxiety and depression. The junior students were found to have more anxiety and depression symptoms and low self-esteem levels. Socio-demographic variables have no significant effect on the self-esteem of nursing students. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW171493669 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;134245418&quot;:true,&quot;134245529&quot;:true,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6}"> </span></p> Danish Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Atiyyah Ghulam Masih, Danish Ali Siddiqui, Aihtisham Parvez, Farzana Mehboob Ali, Afsha Bibi Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1249 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing Contentment with Life among Nursing Students at Private Nursing Institute Karachi, Pakistan https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1248 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">Life contentment denotes the measure to which an individual finds joy in their life, encompassing contemplative reflections and constituting an element of overall happiness and self-well-being. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">Objective: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">To assess </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">l</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">evels of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">c</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">ontentment with life among nursing students. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">Method</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">This cross-sectional study was conducted at a private nursing institute in Karachi, Pakistan, from October to December 2023. Additionally, a convenient sampling technique was used, with a total of ninety-eight student participants included in the study.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">98 participants reveal a </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">predominantly young</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0"> group (84% aged 18-24) with balanced gender distribution (49% male, 51% female) and diverse education levels (30% 1st year, 29% 2nd year, 16% 3rd year, 25% 4th year). Contentment levels varied (6.1% low, 37.8% moderate, 56.1% high). Demographic analysis showed no significant age differences based on gender or education years (p &gt; 0.05)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">. This comprehensive overview informs understanding of nursing student well-being</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">Most participants reported high life contentment, with no significant age differences based on gender or education years. Overall, the findings offer valuable insights into the well-being of nursing students, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">emphasi</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">z</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0">ing</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0"> the role of diverse demographics.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW86937122 BCX0"> </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW86937122 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Haq Nawaz, Muhammad Gulzada, Muhammad Islam, Afsha Bibi, Fazal Khaliq, Muhammad Abbas Khan, . Fazlullah Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1248 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Association of Self-Esteem, Narcissistic Tendencies, and Selfie-Posting Behavior among Young Adults https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1266 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">Self-posting among many adults but people with low self-image and narcissistic tendencies more focus on self-posting activities and this thing is a leading cause of social media addiction. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">Objective: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">To explore the relationship between self-esteem, narcissistic tendencies, and self-proof behavior among young adults. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">Methods: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">400 students (200 male and 200 female) from different universities in Karachi and Faisalabad</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">The age range of the participants covered the years 12 to 30. The sample was taken using a simple random sampling technique. The following measures were used to assess the findings i.e., demographic form, selfie-posting behavior scale, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW42936234 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Emphasis">narcissistic</span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW42936234 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0"> </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW42936234 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">personality inventory-16</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0"> scale </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW42936234 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">used to assess the</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0"> selfie-posting behavior among young adults</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">Findings </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">indicate</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0"> a significant and negative relationship between self-esteem and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">selfie-posting </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">behavior. Self-esteem significantly predicts </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">selfie-posting </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">behavior among young adults. furthermore, statistics also </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">indicate</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0"> there is no significant relationship between narcissism and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">selfie-posting </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">behavior among adolescents. Narcissism is not a significant predictor of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">selfie-posting </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">behavior among young adults. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">Conclusions: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW42936234 BCX0">It is concluded that individuals who take more selfies have low or no self-esteem compared to those who do not take self-imaging. Additionally, those who have posted more selfies online tend to have narcissistic dispositions because they believe that other people find value in what they do.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW42936234 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Hina Imran, Saba Rehman, Sanober Khanum, Mafia Shahzadi Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1266 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison between the Young and Elderly Diagnosed Patients of Carcinoma of the Breast https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1247 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0">Breast cancer presents a significant health challenge in Pakistan, marked by high incidence rates and specific cultural and societal barriers to early detection and treatment.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0"> Objective: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0">T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0">o compare diagnosed cases of CA breast in younger and </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW136211760 BCX0">older patients</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0"> in terms of mode of presentation, TNM stage at presentation, histological </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0">variety</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0"> and hormonal status. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0">Methods: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0">In our prospective comparative study conducted at the Department of Surgery, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW136211760 BCX0">Bahawal</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0"> Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur, we included a total of 220 breast cancer patients aged 20 years and above. Patients were stratified into two distinct age groups for comparison: younger patients (aged less than or equal to 35 years) and older patients (aged more than 35 years). Modes of presentation, histological types, and hormonal receptor statuses were compared between </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW136211760 BCX0">the both</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0"> groups. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0">In a study of 220 breast cancer patients with a mean age of 42.97 years, younger patients (≤35 years) </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0">constituted</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0"> 24%, while older patients (&gt;35 years) made up 76%. The most common presentation was lump formation (78.18%), </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0">mainly in</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0"> older patients. Ulceration was evenly distributed across age groups. Histologically, invasive ductal carcinoma Grade III was more frequent in older patients, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0">whereas</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0"> Ductal Carcinoma </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW136211760 BCX0">In</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0"> Situ</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0"> (DCIS) was exclusive to younger patients, underscoring distinct age-related disease patterns.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0">Conclusions: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0">Our study revealed significant age-related differences in breast cancer presentation among Pakistani patients. Older patients (&gt;35 years) </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0">predominantly presented</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0"> with lump formation, suggesting diagnostic delays, while all younger patients (≤35 years) had DCIS, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0">indicating</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0"> possible early detection or unique tumor biology. Additionally, older patients </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0">exhibited</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW136211760 BCX0"> higher ER and PR positivity. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW136211760 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Ramsha Khan, Umar Javed, Atiq Ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1247 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Diagnostic Accuracy of Gastroscopy with Narrow Band Imaging for the Diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori Gastritis https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1260 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">Helicobacter pylori infection promotes stomach cancer and chronic gastritis globally. Endoscopic features that may </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">identify</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">H. pylori </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">are being explored. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0"> Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) is used to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">identify</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0"> and treat </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">H. pylori </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">gastritis before biopsy since most patients are lost to follow-up or follow-up is too late. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">H. pylori </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">gastritis may be treated early to improve quality of life and gastrointestinal concerns. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">Methods: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">This cross-sectional study at Department of Gastroenterology, Liaq</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">u</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">at National Hospital, Karachi, conducted between 1</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW43635774 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">st</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0"> March 2022 till 28</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW43635774 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">th</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0"> February 2023, included 150 patients. Patients with gastritis on endoscopy were evaluated for the presence of </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">H. pylori </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">with Narrow band Imagining. Findings were compared with histopathology as gold standard. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">Mean age of the patients was 41.87 ± 12.5 years. Male participants were 71 (47.3%). The most common admission complaints were nausea, appetite loss, and abdominal distension. The diagnostic accuracy of NBI for the detection of </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">H. pylori </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">was 85% sensitivity, 88% specificity, 88% positive predictive value, 87% negative predictive value and overall accuracy of 88%. NBI endoscopy was cheaper and took less time to diagnose (27 minutes vs. 37 minutes). NBI endoscopy is more effective and cost-effective than standard gastroscopy. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">Conclusions: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">The data confirm the high incidence of </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">H. pylori </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW43635774 BCX0">in gastrointestinal patients. NBI endoscopy is more effective and cost-effective than standard gastroscopy.</span></span></p> Bushra Rehan, Muhammad Mansoor Ul-Haq, Rajesha Kumar, Mehreen Akmal Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1260 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Educational Intervention on Neonatal Nurses Practices Regarding Oral Motor Stimulation on Early Transition from Tube to Oral Feeding in Preterm Infants https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1232 <p>Nurses working in neonatal nursery units play a crucial role in assessing the preterm infants feeding readiness cues for initiation of oral feeding and implementing the evidence-based intervention to support the development of feeding skills. <strong>Objectives:</strong> To assess the effect of educational intervention on neonatal nurses’ practices regarding oral Motor stimulation on early transition from to oral oral feeding in preterm infants. <strong>Methods: </strong>A quasi-experimental single group study conducted in Children Hospital Lahore from May to July 2023. Pre and post intervention data was collected through the observational checklist from 36 nurses working in Neonatology. Nurses were educated through PowerPoint presentation and direct demonstration on infants. <strong>Results: </strong>Descriptive statistics showed that Majority of nurses were having diploma in nursing, 4-10 years’ experience and belonged to 31-45 years age category. In inferential statistics Paired sample t-test revealed that the majority of nurses (100%, n=36) had incompetent practices before training which were improved (91.6%, n=33) after educational intervention with significant p-value&lt;0.05. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The nurses who received training revealed competent practices so we conclude that educational intervention was effective to improve the nurses’ practices.</p> Samina Naz, Muhammad Afzal, Madiha Mukhtar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1232 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Frequency of Urinary Tract Infection among Neonates with Persistent Jaundice at Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1221 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">Jaundice refers to yellow-orange discoloration of the skin and sclera, resulting from an excessive accumulation of bilirubin in the dermis and mucous membranes. Indirect neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is a prevalent and frequent etiology of jaundice, leading to the hospitalization of neonates in healthcare institutions worldwide.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">Objective:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">To </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0"> the frequency of urinary tract infection among neonates with prolonged jaundice</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">Method</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">The present study, a cross-sectional design, was carried out at the Department of Pediatrics, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, from June 20</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW71113148 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">th</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0"> to December 20</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW71113148 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">th</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">, 2022. The study consisted of 87 infants, encompassing both genders, who presented with persistent jaundice. Two samples of clean urine were collected from neonates, with a time interval of many </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">minimums</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0"> of two hours between each collection. These samples were then sent to the hospital laboratory for diagnosing urinary tract infection.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">Results:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">The age range of participant neonates in this study ranged from 14 to 28 days, with a mean age of 20.597±4.50 days. The mean duration of complaint was also 18.20±4.077 days, and the mean weight was 2.855±0.27 Kg. The proportion of male patients was 58.6%, while the proportion of female patients was 41.4%. Among these 11.5% were found to have urinary tract infection.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">It is concluded that </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">significant number</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0"> (11.5%) of patients with persistent jaundice has urinary tract infection</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">It is </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0">likely a</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW71113148 BCX0"> potential etiological factor contributing to neonatal unexplained prolonged indirect hyperbilirubinemia.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW71113148 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6}"> </span></p> Lal Muhammad, Inayatullah Khan, Afzal Khan, . Numan, Saddam Hussain, Sajid Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1221 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Hearing Aid use on listening skill of hearing impaired Students https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1241 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hearing loss affects listening and communication. Listening represents the basis for verbal communication. Literature reveals a research gap as regards listening effort in case of HA users. Hence, current study was conceived to determine the impact of hearing aid on listening skills of school going hearing impaired students.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This comparative study was conducted from 1<sup>st</sup> February, 2023 to 30<sup>th</sup> June, 2023 at Shifa International Hospital Ltd using purposive sampling. Sample of N=66 participant students of both genders, aged 5 years and above with moderate to profound hearing loss for more than three years and using hearing aids. 20 words were presented to the participant first without hearing aids and then with hearing aids and their response was recorded. Data analysis was performed by SPSS version-23 &amp; Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine any associations and p&lt;0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><strong>Results: </strong>&nbsp;Results revealed that for unaided condition Median (IQR) score of 54, and IQR of 35. &amp; mean rank 32.&nbsp; In aided condition Median (IQR) score was 80, IQR was 2 &amp;. mean rank was 0. The p=0.000 suggests a significant difference between the two categories.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Study concludes that there is substantial improvement in the listening skills of participants with hearing aids on as compared to without hearing aid with children having moderately severe category of hearing loss benefitting the most from hearing aids.</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> Ghulam Saqulain, Insha Asif, Maryam Maqbool, Abdul Moiz, Muhammad Abdul Sami Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1241 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ​​The Frequency of Gangrenous Infarction of Intestine in Patients Undergoing Intestinal Resection at Tertiary Care Hospital, Rawalpindi https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1194 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0">Gangrenous bowel or dead bowel most often occurs </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW41248762 BCX0">as a result of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0"> hernia, adhesions, and mesenteric insufficiency. Intestinal gangrene due to acute mesenteric vascular events requiring surgery is one of the most common surgical emergencies at tertiary care hospitals. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0"> To </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0"> the frequency of gangrenous infarction in patients undergoing intestinal resection at a tertiary care hospital. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0">Methods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0"> This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Surgery and Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A total of 140 resected intestinal specimens were included in this study. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS v. 23. o. Descriptive statistics were applied and a P-value &lt;0.05 was taken as statistically significant. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0"> Out of 140 samples, clinical specimens from 30(21.4%) patients were found to be gangrenous. The frequency of gangrene was slightly higher in females 16 (53.3%) as compared to males 14 (46.7%) with a peak of 19 patients (63.3%) in the age group of 31 to 60 years and mostly affecting the small intestine 21 (70%). Among the total of 110 (78.6%) non-gangrenous specimens; mild inflammatory changes, perforation, ulceration, tumors, mucosal and mural infarction, infection, reactive hyperplasia, and autolytic changes were noted. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0">Conclusions:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0"> The frequency of intestinal gangrene is much higher in our population than in most regions of the world, slightly more common in females as compared to males with a peak in the age group of 31 to 60 years and mostly involving the small intestine, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0">indicating</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW41248762 BCX0"> negligence towards this important problem.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW41248762 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240,&quot;469777462&quot;:[3375],&quot;469777927&quot;:[0],&quot;469777928&quot;:[1]}"> </span></p> Mehak Ruqia, Khizra Waheed, Maimoona Maheen, Aamna Nazir, Aqiba Malik, Muhammad Sheraz Hameed, Ali Haider, Abdullah Asghar, Abdur Rehman, Sarah Arshad Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1194 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Unveiling Pelvic Floor Health: Understanding Awareness, Perspectives and Habits in Pakistani Women of Reproductive Age https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1239 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">The pelvic floor, a crucial anatomical structure supporting pelvic organs, is vital in various physiological functions. Pelvic Floor Dysfunction (PFD) encompasses disorders affecting pelvic floor muscles and is a significant health concern globally. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) has been advocated for managing PFD, especially in women post-childbearing. However, there is a lack of awareness and understanding </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">regarding</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0"> PFMT in Pakistani women. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0"> T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">o assess the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) towards PFMT among women of childbearing age</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0"> in</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">a </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">rural health </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW164164278 BCX0">centre</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">in </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">Haripur, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">Pakistan.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">Methods:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">A cross-sectional study was conducted at a Rural Health Center in Haripur, Pakistan, involving 158 women aged 20 to 50. A structured questionnaire covered KAP's details </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">regarding</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0"> PFMT. Data analysis employed SPSS 26.0, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">utilizing</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0"> mean and standard deviation</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">Results:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">The study revealed a response rate of 52.6%, with a mean age of 30±7.3 years for participants. Notably, 29.1% of women reported an inability to control their urine. Knowledge assessment showed that 54.9% of participants knew pelvic exercises and their potential benefits. Attitude towards PFMT was positive in 41.8% of women, while only 20.5% </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW164164278 BCX0">practised</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0"> PFMT regularly. Pregnant women </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">exhibited</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0"> a higher prevalence of urinary incontinence</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">.</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW164164278 BCX0">The study concludes that a substantial proportion of women in Pakistan lack awareness of PFMT benefits, leading to inadequate practice. This underscores the importance of implementing awareness programs and training sessions targeting women of childbearing age to address the challenges posed by PFD effectively.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW164164278 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Ayesha Ismail, Iqra Bibi Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1239 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Change in Corneal Astigmatism After Phacoemulsification with Rigid Intraocular Lens Implantation https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1279 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0">Phacoemulsification with lens implant is the preferred method of cataract extraction nowadays. In resource-deficient settings, rigid polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) lenses are implanted which require enlargement of corneal incision to 5.5mm. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0">Objectives</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0"> We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of corneal incisions secured with a single suture on corneal astigmatism after routine cataract surgery. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0">Methods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0"> It was a quasi-experimental study conducted at tertiary care hospitals. Sixty patients were studied and preoperative visual acuity and keratometry readings were noted. After standard phacoemulsification, a 5.5mm rigid PMMA lens was implanted in the bag, and the corneal incision was sutured using a single central 10/0 nylon suture. Visual acuity and keratometry readings were noted on 1st postoperative day, 1-week postoperatively, and 6-weeks postoperatively and compared with pre-operative values. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0"> The mean age was 59.27 ± 10.72 (range: 46 – 78) years. There were 32 (53.3%) males and 28(46.7%) females in the study. The mean preoperative keratometry reading was 0.89 ± 0.70 D, and the mean first-day postoperative cylinder was 1.94 ± 0.98 D (p &lt; 0.05). The mean astigmatism at the 6th week postoperatively was 0.96 ± 0.65 D, and its comparison with the pre-operative astigmatism was statistically not significant (p &gt; 0.05). Surgically induced astigmatism was found to be 0.07 diopters. Almost 60% of the patients achieved uncorrected 6/7.5 or better visual acuity, and more than one-third of patients achieved 6/6 best corrected visual acuity six weeks after the cataract surgery using the described technique. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0">Conclusions:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW90859801 BCX0"> Phacoemulsification with 5.5mm PMMA IOL with a central single suture is an effective procedure for postoperative astigmatism and visual outcome.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW90859801 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6}"> </span></p> Sana Jahangir, Muhammad Hassaan Ali, Uzma Hamza Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1279 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Rate of Success of CPR in Patients Suffering from Cardiac Arrest in Patients Admitted in CCU in Cardiology Department Ayub Medical Teaching Institute https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1259 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0">Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an essential procedure used to treat patients who are in cardiac arrest, particularly in the Critical Care Unit (CCU).</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0">T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0">o assess the success rate of CPR </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0">admitted to the CCU, revealing insight on the effectiveness of current resuscitation techniques.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0">Methods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0"> This retrospective study was conducted at Department of Cardiology Ayub Medical Teaching Institute, Abbottabad, between 13</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW88789890 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">th</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0"> April 2023 to 30</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW88789890 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">th</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0"> Novemb</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0">er 2023, 110 patients had cardiac arrest while in the intensive care unit. Data were gathered and examined on patient demographics, pre-existing comorbidities, time to start CPR, duration of CPR, and results. CPR success was defined as a sustained restorat</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0">ion of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) for at least 20 minutes.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0">This study included 110 cardiac patients. Most patients (68.18%) were male. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity at 72.7%. CPR started on average 4.8 minutes late, with a 1.2-m</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0">inute standard deviation. The average CPR time was 18.2 minutes, with a 5.6-minute SD. After cardiac arrest, 60 (54.5%) patients began CPR within 5 minutes. Another subgroup found 96.0% CPR success in 25 (22.7%) ventricular fibrillation patients. Then occu</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0">rred ventricular tachycardia (80.0%), pulseless electrical activity (76.0%), and asystole (68.9%). These data suggest that CPR works better in ventricular fibrillation patients.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0">This research sheds light on cardiac arrest CCU patients' demogra</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0">phics, care, and outcomes. The data show that early CPR and ventricular fibrillation detection and treatment improve outcomes for these individuals</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW88789890 BCX0">.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW88789890 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Sardar Fawad Gul, Muhammad Imran Khan, Yasir Ali Shah, Zia Ullah Khan, Sardar Jawad Gul, Rabia Basre Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1259 Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Vicryl Rapide Versus Chromic Catgut for Episiotomy Repair https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1003 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">A significant proportion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0"> of women </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">benefit</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0"> fro</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">m e</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">pisiotomy,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0"> but </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">it</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">’</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0"> also associated</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0"> with</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">short and long-term</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0"> postpartum morbidities like perineal pain due to lacerations and scar formation after repair. The current study was designed to rule out the variations </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">regarding</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0"> pain and analgesia requirement.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0"> Objective: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">To evaluate outcome of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW65732991 BCX0">vicryl</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW65732991 BCX0">rapid</span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW65732991 BCX0">e</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0"> sutures versus chromic catgut sutures for episiotomy repair in terms of pain and analgesia requirement</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">Metho</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">ds</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">In this</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0"> randomized control trial from March to September 2021, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">a total of 206 females (103 in each group) were enrolled and the data was collected after taking informed consent. Episiotomy in all females was done by a single senior consultant. Su</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">b</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">jects</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0"> were</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0"> randomly assigned one of two sutures. In Group-A females were managed by </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW65732991 BCX0">vicryl</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW65732991 BCX0">rapide</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0"> 2-0 (36mm, 1/2circle double reverse cutting and round bodied needle)</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">f</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">emales</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">. i</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">n group-B were managed by chromic catgut 1.0 (30 mm, 0.5 circle round bodied needle). Bot</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">h </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">groups were compared in terms of pain and analgesic requirement. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">Results</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">Comparison of pain in </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW65732991 BCX0">vicryl</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW65732991 BCX0">rapide</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0"> sutures versus chromic catgut after repair of episiotomy showed that 32.0% (n=33) in Group-A and 49.5% (n=51) in Group-B had pain </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">after</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0"> 48 hours</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0"> (</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">p value</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0"> = 0.01). A</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">nalgesia requirement at day 7 was recorded in 20.4% (n=21) in Group-A and 66.0%(n=68) in Group-B</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">(p = &lt;0.000)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">Conclusions: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0">We concluded that </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW65732991 BCX0">vicryl</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW65732991 BCX0">rapide</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65732991 BCX0"> has a better outcome as compared with chromic catgut in repair of episiotomy in terms of pain and analgesic requirements.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW65732991 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Sadaf Zahra Syed, Mafia Akbar, Naheed Akhtar, Nomia Ashraf, Afroze Ashraf, Sofia Manzoor Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1003 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Common Complications in Infants Born to Diabetic Mothers https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1261 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Infants of diabetic mothers are at increased risk of complications. There is always a need for more research on this topic to look for complications and make strategies for prevention and management. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Objectives: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">To </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> the frequency of complications in</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">infants</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">born to</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">diabetic</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">mothers. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Methods:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">This descriptive study was done at the Department of Pediatrics, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Molvi</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> Ameer Shah Memorial Hospital, Peshawar from 1st January 2022 to 31st December 2022. A total of 150 infants born to diabetic mothers were enrolled after written informed consent and frequencies of complications were noted. Data were analyzed using SPSS 24.0.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">The mean age of the patients was 3.08 ± 1.7 days. The minimum age was 1 day, and the maximum was 7 days. The mean age of the mother was 26.9 ± 4.07 years. The mean gestational age was 36.9 ± 1.4 weeks. The mean duration of diabetes was 7.6 ± 1.14 years. The mean HbA1c level was 7.27 ± 2.41. There were 38% males and 62% female. Adequate diabetic control was present in 24.7% of patients while 75.3% had poor diabetic control. The most common complication was hypoglycemia in 24.7% followed by Macrosomia in 22.7%, prematurity in 20%, hyperbilirubinemia 11.3%, hypocalcemia in 10.7% and polycythemia in 10.7% patients. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Conclusions: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Most common complication was hypoglycemia</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">followed</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">by</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">macrosomia,</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">prematurity,</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">hyperbilirubinemia,</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">hypocalcemia,</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">and</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">polycythemia. However, due to its limited sample size, the results may not be generalizable. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW103019514 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;134245417&quot;:false,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6}"> </span></p> Syed Bawar Shah, Shandana Bawar, . Wajeeha, Nazish Farooq Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1261 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Efficacy of Kinesio Taping as an Adjunct Treatment for Knee Osteoarthritis, Grade 1 & 2: A Quasi-Experimental Study https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1277 <p>.<span class="TextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent chronic joint condition resulting in pain, stiffness, and reduced joint function. Kinesio </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">taping (</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">KT) has </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">emerged</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0"> as an adjunct treatment for OA</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0"> T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">o examine the role of KT as an adjunctive intervention in the physi</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">otherapy management of knee OA. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">Methods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0"> A quasi-experimental investigation was conducted at Bethania Hospital, Pakistan, comparing the effectiveness of standard physiotherapy alone (Group 1) and standard physiotherapy plus KT (Group 2) in patients with knee OA grade I and II. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">By </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">convenience sampling selected 50 participants aged above 40 with knee OA. Both groups received standard physiotherapy treatments, and KT was applied to Group 2 using a specific technique. Outcome measures included pain reduction Visual Analogue Scale</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">(VAS), functional improvement using Western Ontario and McMaster Index</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">(WOMAC), and presence of swelling and tenderness.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0"> Demographic findings showed left-sided predominance of knee involvement, higher female prevalence, and a common age group of 40-45 years. Both groups </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">demonstrated</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0"> improvement in pain and functional outcomes post-intervention. The experimental group (Group 2) </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">exhibited</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0"> significantly lower WOMAC scores (p</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0"> &lt;.001</span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW159712916 BCX0">)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0"> and VAS pain scores (p=</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">.011) compared to the control group </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">indicating</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0"> superior improvement. The incidence of swelling and tenderness around knee </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">demonstrated</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0"> no improvement in posttest analysis.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">Promising results are reported in KT group in management of knee OA in grade I and grade II as compared to only physiotherapy treatment. The study highlights the age specific considerations, tape application method and impact of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW159712916 BCX0">kinesio</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0"> tape intervention as an </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0">additional</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW159712916 BCX0"> option in physiotherapy. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW159712916 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Danyal Ahmad, Hamza Zahid, Faiza Altaf, Ramish Sarfraz, Syeda Khadija Kazmi, Amna Khalid Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1277 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Chemical Composition of Calculi Removed from Urinary Tract https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1272 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0">Urinary stone (calculi) disease is the most prevalent occurrence in the outpatient urology department by far. It is becoming </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0">more and more</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0"> commonplace. Since most of the calculi might recur, understanding chemical composition is crucial. worldwide. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0">Objective: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0">To analyze the different compositions of calculi removed from urinary tract. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0">Methods</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0">: A descriptive study was performed in the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0">Department of Urology, Avicenna Medical College and Hospital, Lahore,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0"> from </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0">July 2016 to October 2022. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0">300 Patients </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0">operated</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0"> for urinary stone disease were selected as the sample population. All calculi removed from these patients were subjected to stone analysis and then results were prepared. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0">Results</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0">: The most common stone type based on chemical composition was calcium oxalate (52%), followed by uric acid stones (25%), mixed stones (17%) and magnesium ammonium phosphate MAP (5%). Other less common types were accountable for only 1%. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0">Conclusions</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW132156189 BCX0">: Calcium oxalate, uric acid and mixed composition stones are most common varieties in the draining area of our hospital setup.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW132156189 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Hassan Raza Asghar, Muhammad Zahid Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Aftab Ahmed Channa, Nauman Ahmad, Abdul Basit Niazi, Shafqat Shahzad Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1272 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating the Prevalence of Ectasia in Angiographic Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1282 <p>Coronary artery ectasia is dilatation of a segment of the coronary arteries leading to intense cardiac conditions. Among the patients undergoing angiography, it has a rare prevalence of 0.3 – 5.3%. It has been strongly associated with atherosclerosis as an evident cause of the dilation of coronary lumen. <strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the frequency of ectasia in patients of acute coronary syndrome undergoing coronary angiography. <strong>Methods:</strong> It is a cross sectional study conducted over six months. 160 patients from the Department of Cardiology, Mayo Hospital, Lahore were enrolled that fulfilled the study criteria of 30-70 years of age, presenting acute coronary syndrome, and undergoing angiography. The Angiography was done by an expert surgeon, simultaneously observed by one of the researchers. Ectasia was diagnosed in all the 160 based on its operational definition. Socio-demographic information including name, age, sex, diabetes (BSR&gt;200mg/dl), hypertension (BP≥140/90mmHg), smoking, and type of acute coronary syndrome was collected with informed consent. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 21. The chi-square test was practiced comparing ectasia in stratified groups of socio-demographic characters and type of acute coronary syndrome. <strong>Results:</strong> Ectasia was diagnosed in 54 (33.8%) patients. No significant association was seen between the age of patients and ectasia. However, frequency of ectasia was higher in patients in the age group 30-50 years. Frequency of ectasia was higher among male patients, but it was not statistically significant when compared with frequency of ectasia among female patients. No significant association was seen between ectasia and diabetes (p-value &gt; 0.999), hypertension (p-value = 0.439) and smoking status (p-value = 0.140) of patients. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Ectasia is a well-established condition of coronary artery but is an unconventional diagnostic finding of coronary angiography in patients affected with acute coronary syndromes.</p> Anam Farooq, Ayesha Tariq, Muhammad Arslan Aslam, Asma Sharif, Waseem Ahmed, Ali Saqlain Haider Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1282 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000