Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs <p><strong>Title of Journal: </strong><strong>Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences</strong></p> <p><strong> (ISSN Online: 2790-9352, Print: 2790-9344)</strong></p> <p><strong>Frequency: </strong><strong>Monthly (w.e.f July-2022)</strong></p> <p><strong>Affiliated with:</strong> Lahore Medical Research Center</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href="http://www.lmrc.com.pk">www.lmrc.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Published By:</strong> CrossLinks International Publishers (CLIP), Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href="http://www.clip.com.pk">www.clip.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p>Lahore Medical Research Center has published <strong>"Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences</strong><strong> (PJHS)</strong>"; A Monthly, Double Blind peer-reviewed open access Journal. The aim of the Journal is to provide a platform for allied health professionals to publish their research work. All materials, articles and information published in <strong>PJHS</strong> will be peer-reviewed.</p> <p>Research papers, Short communications, Review or mini-reviews, Commentaries, Perspectives, opinion, Meta-analysis, Case reports, Case studies, Case-control studies</p> <p>Reviews on recent progress in Health Sciences are commissioned by the editors. The purpose of the <strong>PJHS</strong> is to publish scientific and technical research papers to bring attention of international researchers, scientists, academicians, health care professionals towards recent advancements in Health Sciences. The articles are collected in the form of reviews, original studies, clinical studies etc. It may serve as a global platform for scientists in relevant fields to connect and mutually share ideas. This journal is open to all the research professionals whose work fall within our scope. </p> <p><strong>Aim &amp; Scope</strong></p> <p>The Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences (PJHS) provides a platform for research and discussion across a broad spectrum of disciplines. Its scope encompasses Medical and Clincal Sciences, Public Health, Physical Therapy, Dentistry, Pharmacology, Nursing and Medical/Health Professions Education. Through comprehensive coverage, PJHS aims to foster collaboration and advance knowledge in these vital areas of healthcare and academia.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Accreditation:</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Approved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the year 2023-24</strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Fee &amp; Subscription Charges</strong></span></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: Rs 5000/ Article (w.e.f 1st May, 2024) <strong>(Non-Refundable)</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National) Rs 30000 / Article</p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ) 200 USD / Article</p> <p>Printed Version (Selected Articles on Authors Request) : Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Annual Subscription for Printed Versions</strong></span></p> <p>For Institutes: Rs 20,000/ Annually</p> <p>Single Copy (Selected Articles): Rs 2500/-</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Bank Details</strong></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm;">Account Title: Lahore Medical Research Center LLP</p> <p style="margin: 0cm;">Bank Name: Meezan Bank</p> <p style="margin: 0cm;">IBAN: PK36MEZN0002840105377903</p> <p style="margin: 0cm;">Account # 02840105377903</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></span></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong><u>Submissions</u></strong></p> <p>Submission are welcome and may be submitted here: <u><a href="mailto:editor@thejas.com.pk">editor@thejas.com.pk</a></u></p> CrossLinks International Publishers en-US Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences 2790-9344 <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments</p> <p><a href="mailto:editor@tjas.lmrc.com.pk">editor@thejas.com.pk</a></p> Advancement of Dengue Virus Vaccine: Progress and Challenges https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1544 <p><span data-contrast="auto">The dengue virus (DENV), which causes dengue, infects 100 to 300 million people globally each year [1]. </span><em><span data-contrast="auto">Aedes aegypti</span></em><span data-contrast="auto"> mosquitoes carry the Dengue virus, which causes dengue fever, which is still a serious global health risk, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas [2]. Since there are now no targeted antiviral therapies and due to difficulties with traditional vector control techniques, the focus has shifted to developing vaccines as the main preventive measure. In order to create a variety of vaccination forms, including live attenuated, recombinant subunit, inactivated virus, viral vectored, DNA, and mRNA vaccines, scientists have targeted E protein and NS1.&nbsp;</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">An important advancement in the fight against Dengue fever has been the development of vaccinations that are able to neutralize all four serotypes. But there are obstacles such as lack of vaccine effectiveness against specific serotypes, side effects produced by vaccine in progeny and vaccine-induced immunological enhancement (ADE).Immunization can lessen the burden on healthcare systems, lower the number of hospitalizations caused by dengue, and help stop outbreaks.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">The development and implementation of dengue vaccine research are significantly accelerated by international cooperation, public-private partnerships, and regulatory cooperation. Effective programs show how crucial it is to work together to combat dengue fever on a worldwide scale. The difficulties involved in developing a dengue vaccine, ongoing funding, campaigning, and research are crucial. There are several viable approaches to increase the efficacy and accessibility of the Dengue vaccine, including cross-disciplinary cooperation, novel vaccination platforms, and emerging technology.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">In conclusion, overcoming obstacles unique to each serotype, embracing creative approaches to vaccine design, and negotiating scientific intricacies are all necessary steps on the path to developing successful Dengue virus vaccines. The convergence of state-of-the-art technologies, computational modeling, and cooperative research endeavors can potentially realize the objective of vaccination-based comprehensive dengue prevention.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> Riffat Mehboob Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 01 01 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1544 Evaluating Communication through Work Authorization between Dentists and Dental Technicians for Fixed Prosthesis https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1372 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal (Web)">Communication within the dental profession can be challenging and may affect the quality of prostheses delivered to the patient. A methodical investigation into the dynamics between dentists and dental technicians is lacking in Lahore. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Strong">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Strong"> </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal (Web)">To assess adequate practice of communication between dentists and dental technicians through work authorization for fixed prosthesis</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal (Web)">.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal (Web)"> </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Strong">Methods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Strong"> </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal (Web)">This cross-sectional study was conducted in dental laboratories of Lahore. A questionnaire concerning work authorization forms was distributed to 80 dental technicians through Google Forms and hard copies. The survey concentrated on inquiries related to various aspects of work authorization, including gender, years of experience, impression disinfection, patient demographic data, impression materials used, fixed prosthesis design, and shade selection. An adequate work authorization was assessed in the end. Statistical analysis was conducted SPSS</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal (Web)"> version 25.0</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal (Web)"> and was analyzed using chi-square, with significance set at p ≤ 0.05. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Strong">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Strong"> </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal (Web)">Out of the 80 survey forms disbursed, only 73 completely filled responses were accepted, giving a response rate of 91%. Information </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal (Web)">regarding</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal (Web)"> patient demographic data (19.2%), patient photographic record (5.5%), </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal (Web)">pontic</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal (Web)"> design (13.7%), margin design (37%), surfaces covered by metal (9.6%) and occlusal scheme (6.8%), were all on the inferior side of the scale ranging below 40%. Adequate practice of work authorization was discouraging, at only 17.8%. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Strong">Conclusions:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Strong"> </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal (Web)">Poorly filled work authorization forms lead to patient and dentist dissatisfaction with fixed dental prostheses. This highlights the importance of clear communication between technicians and dentists. Dental students should learn to complete these forms during their training.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW240123356 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233117&quot;:false,&quot;134233118&quot;:false,&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559738&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Anam Fayyaz Bashir Ussamah Waheed Jatala Moeen ud Din Ahmad Aisha Arshad Butt Aneela Qaiser Nadia Munir Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 02 06 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1372 Analyzing the Direct and Indirect Effects of Coping Self-Efficacy on Well-Being via Quality of Life https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1349 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">Understanding the intricate interplay between coping self-efficacy, quality of life, and overall well-being is essential in exploring the factors that contribute to individual resilience and psychological thriving.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">Objective</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW233314983 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">To test coping self-</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">efficacy's</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0"> direct and indirect (through quality of life) effect on well-being.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">Method</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">s</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">: </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">Using purposive sampling, data </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">were</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0"> collected from literate adults aged 18 and above in Pakistan. Sample (N=150), mean age=22.65 years consisted of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">51 males (34%) and 99 females (66%)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">. Informed consent was taken, and participants filled out the questionnaire consisting of the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">PERMA profiler, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">generalized self-efficacy scale, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">world health organization quality of life </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">brief</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">and demographic sheet. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">Results</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">: </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">Data analysis showed that coping self-efficacy positively affects well-being</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0"> (B=3.98, p &lt;0</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">.01). The meditational model showed a significantly positive direct effect (B=.2.78, p &gt;</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">0</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">.01) as well as the indirect effect of coping self-efficacy on well-being (B = 1.20, 95% </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">CI </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">= 0.46, to 1.90). These results show that having higher coping self-efficacy will have an accelerating effect on well-being. Similarly, coping self-efficacy also increases the quality of life, further increasing well-being.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">s</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">:</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0"> An individual’s well-being increases in the presence of higher </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">c</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">oping self-efficacy, and this relation is accelerated further in the presence of better quality of life</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW233314983 BCX0">Thus, the quality of life and self-efficacy can be targeted in intervention programs to enhance well-being for living a more fulfilling life and to create more resilient citizens.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW233314983 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Shahla Saeed Summiya Ahmad Hayat Muhammad Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 07 12 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1349 Examining the Predictive Relationship between Perceived Social Support and Perceived Stress among Pregnant Women https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1343 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">The woman's mental and physical health will unavoidably suffer throughout her pregnancy. Extreme mood swings and, in rare occasions, mental instability can occur. These factors make pregnancy a time when a woman </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW77275643 BCX0">has to</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0"> undertake bio-psycho-social modifications, such as </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">establishing</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0"> strong social support systems, </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW77275643 BCX0">in order to</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0"> alleviate the stress that comes with being pregnant. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0"> To investigate</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0"> the predictive relationship between perceived social support and perceived stress among pregnant women in Pakistan. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">Methods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0"> The study used</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0"> a correlational cross-sectional research design. The sample consisted of (N=72) pregnant females in their third trimester with an age range between 18 to 37 years (Mean age= 26.3; SD=4.4) was selected from departments of Obstetrics</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0"> </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">and</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0"> </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">Gynecology</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0"> of various hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">by using purposive sampling technique. The data </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">were</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0"> collected from December 2022 till January 2023. The demographic information form, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Perceived Stress Scale were used, and analysis of data </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">were</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0"> done by using Regression analysis a</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">nd One-way ANOVA through SPSS version 25.0</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0"> The findings revealed a significant negative predictive relationship between perceived social support from friends and perceived stress of pregnant women (</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">b= -</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">.482,</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">p&lt;.05). The analysis of variance reveals that significant mean differences in socioeconomic status and number of miscarriages on perceived stress are present among pregnant women. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">These results emphasize the need to develop comprehensive strategies for </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0">assisting</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0"> pregnant women by </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW77275643 BCX0">taking into account</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW77275643 BCX0"> the aspects of social support, and make interventions to tackle stress successfully, and enhance maternal well-being throughout the pregnancy.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW77275643 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Ayesha Ahmad Rabia Mushtaq Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 13 18 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1343 Insights into Standard Precaution Knowledge and Adherence among Healthcare Workers: Evidence from Tertiary Care Hospitals in Peshawar, Pakistan https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1344 <p><span data-contrast="auto">Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk of being exposed to blood-borne infections when performing clinical activities, hence conventional measures must be followed. The study conducted in Peshawar was motivated by the inadequate adherence to standards in Pakistan. </span><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Objective:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> To evaluate tertiary care hospitals' healthcare workers' (HCWs) awareness of and adherence to standard precautions. </span><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Methods:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> Over the course of six months, 421 HCWs employed in a variety of public and commercial tertiary healthcare settings in Peshawar, Pakistan, participated in cross-sectional research. Convenient sampling was employed in the selection of participants. Three portions of a standardized questionnaire addressing adherence, knowledge, and demographics were administered. For data analysis SPSS version 27® was used, evaluating adherence and knowledge using scoring methods. </span><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Results:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> The majority of participants (78.1%) were new in their areas, and 68.2% had completed standard precautions training. Although the majority of healthcare workers (HCWs) showed high understanding (67.46%), there were still significant gaps in their knowledge, especially when it came to false beliefs about HIV and Hepatitis patient care. However, there was excellent adherence, particularly for trash disposal (73.6%) and hand hygiene (91.4%). When it came to knowledge and adherence, doctors outperformed lab technicians and nurses. </span><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Conclusions:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> Despite knowledge limitations, healthcare workers (HCWs) in Peshawar displayed outstanding adherence to basic procedures, going beyond theoretical comprehension. This underscores the importance of practical implementation in healthcare settings.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> <p><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Salman Zahir Khansa Khan Noor Sardar Sarwat Jahan Muhammad Mehr Ali Aamir Khan Janeeta Khattak Somia Mazhar Jamal Shah Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 19 24 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1344 Assessment of Tongue Scraper and Using Baking Soda Mouth Wash in Reduction of Halitosis https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1357 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1" data-ccp-parastyle-defn="{&quot;ObjectId&quot;:&quot;4c1602ff-3dcd-4669-bef5-03edd318b8fc|56&quot;,&quot;ClassId&quot;:1073872969,&quot;Properties&quot;:[469775450,&quot;Normal1&quot;,201340122,&quot;2&quot;,134233614,&quot;true&quot;,469778129,&quot;Normal1&quot;,335572020,&quot;1&quot;,469777841,&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,469777842,&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,469777843,&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,469777844,&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,469769226,&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,268442635,&quot;26&quot;,335559704,&quot;1025&quot;,335559705,&quot;1033&quot;,335551547,&quot;1033&quot;,335559685,&quot;10&quot;,335559740,&quot;268&quot;,201341983,&quot;0&quot;,335559739,&quot;163&quot;,335551550,&quot;6&quot;,335551620,&quot;6&quot;]}">Bad breath, also known as halitosis, is a symptom in which a noticeably unpleasant breath odor is present. It can result in anxiety among those affected. It is also associated with depression and symptoms of </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">obsessive compulsive</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1"> disorder.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">Objective:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">To compare the effectiveness of tongue scraper and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) mouthw</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">ash in reduction of halitosis. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">Methods</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">This comparative cross-sectional study was organized in undergraduate students of Paramedics </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences (</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">LUMHS</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">),</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1"> Jamshoro. Individuals aged 18 to 30 years of age were included by </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">non-probability convenient sampling technique. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">Data </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">were</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">analysed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1"> by SPSS </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">Version</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">-26</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">.0</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1"> </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">A total of 302 cases were comparatively studied. Males were in preponderance in both groups. Before treatment, 2.6% had slight odor, 33.8% had moderate odor, 28.5% had heavy odor, 23.85% had strong odor and 11.2% had intense odor in </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">Group </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">A, while 14.6% had slight odor, 19.9% had moderate odor, 25.8% had heavy odor, 21.8% had strong odor and 17.8% had intense odor in </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">Group </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">B (p</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">=</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">0.04). After treatment baking sod</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">a mouthwash showed more efficacious in terms of decrease </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">the halitosis and its severity. In 21.2% halitosis was completely reduced and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">remaining</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1"> most of the cases had mild and moderate halitosis compared to tongue scraper technique, while strong odor was completely reduced in both groups (p-0.001). </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">S</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">odium bicarbonate (baking soda) mouthwash was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1">observed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Normal1"> to be the more effective in terms of decrease the halitosis and its severity compared to the tongue scraper technique among individuals presented with halitosis. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW220024841 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559685&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Pirah Talpur Shazia Parveen Rajpar Nida Talpur Khalida Naz Memon Javaid Unar Rehmatullah Kandhro Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 25 29 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1357 Perinatal Outcomes of High Risk Pregnancies: Experience of a Tertiary Care Hospital https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1385 <p>High Risk Pregnancy (HRP) denotes a condition where the mother, the fetus, or both are predisposed to complications during the gestation period, at birth, or postnatally, which is affected by several factors. <strong>Objective: </strong>To analyze the perinatal outcomes of high-risk pregnancies, focusing on the experience of a tertiary care hospital.<strong> Methods: </strong>A longitudinal study over two years, from October 1, 2020, to December 31, 2022, was conducted on 213 high-risk pregnant women, via purposive sampling, who attended the antenatal clinic Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad and Jamshoro. After obtaining informed written consent, interviews were conducted with the participants to collect data about their sociodemographic, obstetric, and gynecological histories. Perinatal outcomes were evaluated on the 8th day post-delivery, during which details concerning maternal and fetal complications in terms of morbidity and mortality, were documented. <strong>Results:</strong> Rh-negative pregnancy was found to be the most high-risk factor with 24.4% (52) of the cases, followed by teenage pregnancy at 12.2% (26), and short stature at 10.9% (23). Additionally, severe anemia was found in 21 women (9.8%), Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) in 18 women (8.6%), and obesity was also seen in 18 women (8.6%). Other noted risk factors included grand multigravida in 13 women (6.1%), thyroid disorder 4.9% (10), twin pregnancy 3.7% (8) and congenital fetal anomaly, polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios each with 2.4% (5). <strong>Conclusions: </strong>This study significantly contributes to the body of knowledge on high-risk pregnancies and their outcomes. </p> Saima Ghaffar Shahla Channa Saira Dars Shafia Khan Farah Liaquat Hanozia Shah Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 30 34 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1385 Frequency of Depressive Symptoms in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Obesity versus Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome without Obesity https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1414 <p>Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complicated hormonal condition that impacts women globally. Its association with obesity and its potential impact on mental health, specifically depressive symptoms, has gained increasing attention. This study aimed to determine the relationship between depressive symptoms and PCOS in women, with a focus on the influence of obesity.<strong> Objective: </strong>To compare the frequency of depressive symptoms among women who have PCOS, categorized based on whether they are obese or not. <strong>Methods: </strong>A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted on electronic medical records of 194 women with PCOS from a tertiary care hospital. Data included demographic information, clinical characteristics of PCOS, and depressive symptom scores measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. The study was conducted from Apr 2021 to Oct 2021 for a period of 6 months.<strong> Results: </strong>Women with PCOS and obesity exhibited significantly higher mean CES-D scores and a higher prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) compared to those without obesity. Hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea, and hirsutism were more prevalent in women with PCOS and obesity. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The study found out that women with PCOS and obesity appear to be at a higher risk of experiencing clinically significant depressive symptoms. Healthcare providers should consider the mental health needs of this population, emphasizing a multidisciplinary approach to care.</p> Sheeba Faryal Ayesha Nighat Adnan Ahmed Saba Bashir Farah Liaquat Hanozia Shah Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 35 39 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1414 Violence-Related Injuries: The Most Common Cases in Hyderabad, Pakistan https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1386 <p>The law influences every aspect of human activity, including medical practice. The nature of casualty is affected by geographical regions, cultures, and social values. Determining characteristics of casualty can guide health policy and can assist in managing healthcare resources. <strong>Objective:</strong> To profile the cases at casualty department of a tertiary teaching hospital. <strong>Methods:</strong> The study was conducted at the casualty department of Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad, Pakistan and Department of Forensic Medicine &amp; Toxicology LUMHS, Jamshoro, over a period of one year from January 2021 to December 2021. A total of 3,487 cases were recorded and categorized into violence-related, transportation-related, substance-related, and sexual assault-related injuries. <strong>Results:</strong> The majority of cases were violence-related incidents (84.65%), followed by transportation-related accidents (14.65%), substance-related injuries (3.61%), and sexual assault-related injuries (0.69%). Violence-related injuries were divided into assault cases, firearm incidents, and police torture. Transportation-related injuries were categorized as road traffic accidents and train accidents. Assault and road traffic accidents were the leading cause of violence-related and transportation-related injuries, respectively. The highest numbers of cases were observed in April, June, and May. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> A substantial portion of cases at casualty department of Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad is contributed by violence-related injuries</p> Ishrat Bibi Muhammad Rafique Shaikh Ummara Munir Abdul Samad Nadia Aslam Aisha Rasheed Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 40 44 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1386 Early Complications of Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in Obstructive Hydrocephalus https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1390 <p>Obstructive hydrocephalus (HCP) occurs when cerebrospinal fluid is blocked leading to the enlargement of ventricular pathways stream resulting into increase pressure within skull. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is considered an effective management strategy for hydrocephalus especially for third/fourth ventricle level. <strong>Objective:</strong> To study the per-operative and post-operative early complications of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in obstructive hydrocephalus patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This prospective study was conducted at Department of Neurosurgery, Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad, from 1<sup>st</sup> January 2020 to 31<sup>st</sup> December 2022. One hundred and fifty patients were included. All the cases, were underwent general anesthesia and elective surgery was performed in them. The patients were followed post operatively for 7 days in context to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, wound infection, bleeding, seizures as well as meningitis. <strong>Results:</strong> Seventy six (50.7%) were males and 74 (49.3%) were female. Mean age was 5.5 ± 2.3 years with maximum number of patients (70.7%) were under or equal the age of 5 years. Complications occurred in 18 patients (12%) out of 150 patients. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage was the most common complication occurred in 5 (3.33%) patients, wound infection was seen in 2 (1.3%) patients, meningitis developed in 3 (2%) patients, minor bleeding was seen in 3 (2%) patients, seizures developed in 4 (2.6%) patients, in hospital mortality occurred in 1 (0.66%) patient on 3rd post-operative day. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>Ventriculostomy appeared to be the better surgical approach for obstructive hydrocephaly management. Minimum numbers of associated complications were observed in present study group.</p> Sanaullah Pathan Hameed Ullah Muzafar Ali Bhand Muhammad Hamid Ali Suhail Ahmed Aghani Vashdev Khimani Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 45 49 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1390 Pattern of Mechanical Asphyxia Deaths in Forensic Autopsies at Medicolegal Section of Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1391 <p>Asphyxia is characterized by oxygen deprivation in cells resulting from insufficient or altered oxygen supply. Mechanical asphyxia refers to inadequate breathing caused by external forces. This study assessed the pattern of mechanical asphyxia-related autopsies carried out at a medico-legal section of Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad.<strong> Objective:</strong> To assess the pattern of mechanical asphyxia-related autopsies carried out at a medico-legal section of a tertiary care teaching hospital.<strong> Methods:</strong> This prospective observational study was performed to analyze the forensic autopsy reports from January 2021 to December 2022 at Liaquat University Hospital. Hyderabad and 103 medico-legal cases of mechanical asphyxia were enrolled. All autopsy reports related to mechanical asphyxia were included. The data were collected on a predesigned pro forma. Autopsies of non-medicolegal nature and related to unnatural deaths apart from mechanical asphyxia were excluded.<strong> Results:</strong> Most of the cases (n=51) were identified as caused by the drowning. The hanging and strangulation occurred in an equal number of mechanical asphyxia-related autopsies (n=26 each). The male gender dominated the frequency of drowning and strangulation while hanging was more prevalent in females.<strong> Conclusions:</strong> Drowning was observed as the most prevalent mechanism of mechanical asphyxia in medico-legal autopsies conducted over a period of two years</p> Nadia Aslam Ishrat Bibi Muhammad Rafique Shaikh Ummara Munir Mobin Inam Pal Abdul Samad Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 50 53 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1391 Infant Hearing Loss: Are Mothers Aware? https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1363 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">If hearing impairment goes unnoticed, negative effects on the infant’s communication, academic, learning, socio-emotional, and language skills oc</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">cur. Mothers have an essential and</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0"> significant role in screening and early intervention. Hence, the level of their knowledge and attitude needs to be addressed. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0"> To </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0"> the maternal awareness towards infant hearing loss. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">Methods: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">This cross-sectional study was conducted at Isra University, Islamabad from February to July 2020. T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">he study recruited a sample of n</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">=377 pregnant women aged 18-45 years, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">utilizing</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0"> convenience sampling. A basic demographic sheet and a Maternal Awareness about Hearing Loss questionnaire were used for data collection. Data </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">were</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0"> statistically analyzed using SPSS Version 26.0. ANOVA and independent sample t-test statistics were </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">utilized</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0"> to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0"> any significant difference in knowledge and attitude scores for demographic variables and p&lt; 0.05 was considered significant. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0"> Overall mothers responded positively to knowledge and attitude items with good scores for knowledge (25.71</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">±</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">6.27) and attitude (8.01</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">±</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">1.88). There was a significant (p&lt;0.05) difference in knowledge and attitude scores for educational level, financial status, and employment status and age revealed significant difference for level of knowledge. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">Conclusions: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">This study concluded that maternal awareness about hearing loss is variably distributed for different risk factors and has a positive attitude about hearing loss </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0">and a highly positive attitude and</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW153825678 BCX0"> willingness to accept the management options in case hearing loss is detected.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW153825678 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Amna Asghar Nazia Mumtaz Ghulam Saqulain Muhammad Abdullah Aqsa Irum Tayyaba Dawood Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 54 60 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1363 Comparing the Impact of Workload on the Mental Health of House Officers at Public and Private Hospitals of Peshawar https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1382 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">Healthcare environments place a high priority on the mental health of medical personnel, especially house officers. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0"> T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">o compare the impact of workload on the mental health of house officers at public and private hospitals of Peshawar. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">Methods</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">Descriptive cross-sectional design was used to gather data from 164 house officers at four major </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">hospitals in Peshawar, Pakistan (</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">Khyber Teaching Hospital, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Kuwait Teaching Hospital, and Northwest General Hospital</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW140380929 BCX0">In order to</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0"> investigate the relationships between workload and mental health, data gathered from October 2023 to February 2024 via a standardized questionnaire on demographics, mental health, and workload was analyzed using descriptive statistics as well as inferential tests like chi-square and t-tests.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">Results:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">Out of 164 hospital patients, 29.7% had a</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">ges between 26 and 28. Among them </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">41.8% were female and 57.6% were male. Surgery (44.8%) and Medicine (54.5%) were the departments' representatives, while General Surgery (34.5%), Medicine (36.4%), Eye (15.2%), and ENT (13.3%) </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">were the wards. The mean scores were </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">(public: 30.69, private: 28.76; p-value.345), patient distribution (public: 11-40, private: 0-40; p-value 0.008), shift distribution (public: 0-15, private: 0-10), and self-reported concentration levels (p-value 0.051) showed significant differences between public and private hospitals. However, there was no discernible fluctuation in the strain levels (p-value = 0.658).</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">House officers in Peshawar need special </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">assi</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">stance</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0"> from all sectors because of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">the</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">ir tremendous responsibilities, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140380929 BCX0">particularly in public hospitals.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW140380929 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Aiman Zia Zobia Ali Farzeen Khan Rafia Imran Fareeha Zubair Maha Sajjad Hamayl Ishfaq Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 61 66 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1382 Seasonal Decomposition of Sexual Victimization-Related Cases in Hyderabad, Pakistan https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1392 <p>The issue of sexual assault is a serious concern that contributes to abuses of human rights and risks to public health. Evaluating situations like these is absolutely necessary in order to make the judicial process easier for both the victim and the person who committed the crime. When the seasonality of sexual assault-related incidents is determined, it can provide the community and law enforcement authorities with information that can help them implement preventative measures. <strong>Objective</strong>: To assess the seasonality of sexual assault-related cases at casualty department of a teaching hospital in Hyderabad, Pakistan. <strong>Methods</strong>: In current descriptive/prospective study, ninety two sexual assault-related medico-legal cases (MLCs) were included. This study based on the seasonality of sexual assault-related MLCs using seasonal decomposition of three-year from January 2020 to December 2022 data from a leading tertiary care teaching hospital in the Hyderabad region. <strong>Results</strong>: Most of the cases (N=42) were reported in the year 2021. The percentage of sexual assault-related MLCs was found to be concentrated from June to August (10.86% to 14.13%). The highest number of sexual assault-related MLCs occurred in July. The seasonal decomposition also showed pronounced peaks in summer, with intense peaks in July for rape and total sexual assault cases. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: The number of sexual assault-related cases was aggregated in mid-year, showing a higher trend in summer season. Efficient preventive measures in certain seasons and education of vulnerable groups can minimize sexual violence in the community</p> Aisha Rasheed Ummara Munir Nadia Aslam Abdul Samad Muhammad Rafique Shaikh Ishrat Bibi Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 67 71 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1392 Comparison of Air Puff Tonometer with Gold Standard Applanation Tonometer for Measurement of Intraocular Pressure in Adult Population https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1498 <p>Detecting and treating glaucoma early is vital to prevent vision loss. Two main instruments, the Air Puff Tonometer and the Gold Standard Applanation Tonometer, are used to measure Intraocular Pressure (IOP). However, there is ongoing debate among ophthalmologists regarding the accuracy and reliability of these devices. <strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate and contrast the measurements of intraocular pressure obtained through Air puff tonometry and Goldmann applanation tonometry. <strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted upon 900 patients of Glaucoma, selected through purposive sampling technique, attending the Eye OPD of Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad. Patients with age more than 18 years, of both genders who provided consent for eye examination and treatment, were included in the study while patients with corneal disease or prior surgery, ocular trauma, or those presenting with active infection or ocular disease were excluded from the study. <strong>Results: </strong>396 (44.0%) of patients were males and 504 (56.0%) were females. The results indicate that the mean IOP measurement for air puff tonometry (17.43 mm Hg) is significantly higher (p-value=0.0001) than the mean measurement obtained by Goldman tonometry (13.84 mm Hg). Overall, the distribution of IOP was similar for both types of tonometry, with a slightly higher proportion having high IOP values (19-22 mmHg) with Goldman tonometry compared to air puff tonometry. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The findings of this research demonstrated a noteworthy contrast between the two techniques, where the air puff tonometry produced noticeably elevated intraocular pressure measurements in comparison to the widely accepted applanation tonometry</p> Yaruq Sami Shaikh Asadullah Jatoi Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 72 77 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1498 Religious Coping and Emotional Adjustment among Patients Undergoing Dialysis: Treatment Perception as Moderator https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/833 <p>Kidney problems are increasing in world as well as in Pakistan. Waste produced in the human blood is filtered through kidneys. When human kidney fails to operate their functions properly, dialysis is the way people can live the rest of their life. <strong>Objective:</strong> To explore the moderating role of treatment perception on religious coping and emotional adjustment among patients undergoing dialysis. <strong>Methods:</strong> Treatment Perception Questionnaire, Brief R-Cope Scale and Emotional Adjustment Measure were used for data collection. 200 dialysis patients; 100 males, 100 females from 19-80 years were selected by using purposive sampling. <strong>Results:</strong> The results showed significant positive correlation among treatment perception, positive religious coping and emotional adjustment. Treatment perception is significant positive moderator between positive religious coping and emotional adjustment. Positive religious coping and emotional adjustment were greater in older patients, while negative religious coping is greater in younger patients. Female patients have perceived their treatment positively and have greater use of positive religious coping as a result they were more emotionally adjusted than male patients. Additionally, less treatment duration patients have high level of treatment perception, positive religious coping and emotional adjustment than patients having more treatment duration. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The findings of this study will help clinical professionals and social workers to have better understanding of these variables, to introduce, promote and modify the required remedies and therapeutic techniques to help out the patients so that they can improve their level of religious coping and emotional adjustment.</p> Tahir Aziz Humaira Bibi Summaira Naz Faria Khan Afsar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 78 82 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.833 Efficacy of Combination of Topical Ketoconazole 2% Cream and Adapalene 0.1% Gel versus Topical Ketoconazole 2% Cream Alone in Treatment of Pityriasis Versicolor https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1395 <p>Pityriasis Versicolor (PV) is a superficial skin infection caused by <em>Malassezia</em> yeasts, resulting in hypo and hyperpigmented macules. It affects up to 40% of individuals, often leading to itching, decreased quality of life, and social stigma. <strong>Objective:</strong> To compare the efficacy of combination of topical ketoconazole 2% cream and adapalene 0.1% gel versus topical ketoconazole 2% cream alone in treatment of pityriasis versicolor. <strong>Methods:</strong> A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Dermatology, Nishtar Hospital, Multan, spanning from November 2020 to April 2021. Total 90 patients were divided equally into two groups: Group A received a combination of Ketoconazole 2% cream and adapalene 1% gel, while Group B received Ketoconazole 2% cream alone. The efficacy of both treatments was evaluated and compared. The study utilized SPSS version 26.0 for data analysis. <strong>Results:</strong> In terms of gender, 52.22% were male, and 47.78% were female across both groups. The mean duration of the disease was 5.84 ± 3.26 years in Group A and 6.04 ± 3.11 years in Group B, with an overall mean of 5.95 ± 3.17 years. The efficacy of Group A was 91.11%, with 41 participants showing positive results, while Group B had an efficacy of 75.56%, with 34 participants showing positive results. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study findings indicate that using a combination of adapalene 0.1% gel and ketoconazole 2% cream is more efficacious than using ketoconazole 2% cream alone in treating PV</p> Faiza Munir Erfan Khattak Wasiq Zafar Abbasi Sabeen Shakir Sameer Ahmed Amanat Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 83 87 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1395 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Nurses Regarding Prevention of Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infection in Tertiary Care Hospital of Peshawar https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1409 <p>Healthcare Associated Infections (HAIs), particularly Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections (CLABSIs), remain a significant global public health concern. CLABSIs, associated with catheter use, pose critical challenges in critical care and cancer treatment settings, necessitating evidence-based measures for prevention. <strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of nurses regarding prevention of central line associated bloodstream infection in tertiary care hospital of Peshawar. <strong>Methods:</strong> This conducted study possessed a cross sectional study design with a random sample of 173 nurses who were presently working or had worked in ICUs of the hospital. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was performed on SPSS version 22.0. <strong>Results:</strong> 45% of nurses demonstrated good knowledge with mean score of 12.35 and standard deviation of ± 1.45, positive attitudes were observed in 74% with mean score of 33.7 and standard deviation of ±2.1 and good practices in 80% of participants with mean score of 40.5 and standard deviation of 1.45 observe. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study clearly indicated that majority of the nurses (54.9%) have poor knowledge regarding CLABSI. Despite of the poor knowledge level most nurses (74%) followed standard practice. Interestingly, greater number of nurses (85%) were found to have positive attitude towards CLABSI. </p> Mudassir Khan Imran Waheed Ahmad Mehwish Waheed Haseena Tahir Khush Hurain . Monica Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 88 91 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1409 A Cross-Sectional Preview of Correlates of Treatment Delay of Urinary Incontinence https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1381 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">The prevalence of </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW39226895 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">u</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">rinary</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing"> incontinence in geriatric women</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing"> and</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">its </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">silent endurance poses high emotional burden </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">as</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing"> stigma attached to this condition often lead</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing"> to reluctance in seeking </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">timely</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing"> medical </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">assistance</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">However,</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">a</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">ffirmation to common characteristics of delayed help seeking behaviour can </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">identify</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing"> vulnerable women for further </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">assistance</span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">Objective</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">To </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing"> the correlates of treatment delay </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">of</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">urinary </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">incontinen</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">ce</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing"> by evaluating common characteristics of those who had delayed their treatment.</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">Methods: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">This cross-sectional study was conducted at Lady Willingdon Hospital's </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">gynecology</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing"> out</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">doors </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">over a three-year period from June 1, 2019, to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">May31</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">, 2022. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">Out of 364 incontinent women,</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">198 participants were sele</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">cted with </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW39226895 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">ages</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing"> above eighteen and incontinence for at least one year. Demographic information and UI-related factors of the participants were collected and evaluated by dividing data into short (less than or equal to three years) and long (greater than three years) delay groups. Correlates of treatment delay were </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">determined</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing"> by regression analysis using SPSS </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">version </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">20</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">.0</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing"> (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">The respondents reported a treatment delay between one and thirty years; </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">nearly half</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing"> (59.60 percent) </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">indicated</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing"> a delay of more than three years. Age above fifty (odds ratio [OR] = 11.39; confidence interval [CI]: 4.30-30.18), embarrassment (OR = 3.63; CI: 1.19-11.12), lower subjective severity of symptoms (OR = 6.31; CI: 2.06-19.35), and stress incontinence (OR = 5.80; CI: 1.97-17.12) were significantly associated with treatment delay in regression analysis.</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="No Spacing">In this study population, the correlates of treatment delay were age above fifty, embarrassment, lower subjective symptoms, and stress incontinence.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW39226895 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6}"> </span></p> Shazia Saaqib Amna Zia Eusoph Amara Jameel Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 92 98 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1381 Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Undergraduate Students of Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1384 <p>Higher rates of stress, anxiety, and depression are seen among university students. <strong>Objective:</strong> To find out the prevalence of stress, anxiety, and depression among undergraduate students. <strong>Methods:</strong> This was a cross-sectional survey study. The study was conducted among undergraduate students of Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) was distributed to undergraduates in their first through last year of university. 132 students completed the DASS survey. We used Fisher's exact tests to compare the variations between the student groupings. <strong>Results:</strong> There were 132 students in all, and their mean age was 20.75 ± 2.1 years. The participants were categorized into two age groups: the first age group consisting of those aged 17-19 years, accounting for 63 (47.7%), and the second age group including individuals aged 20-22 years, representing 69 (52.3%). The male students were represented by 75 (56.8%), while the female students were represented by 57 (43.2%). Over 82 (62.1%) of students had a poor socioeconomic status. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Female students were found with high frequency of depression, stress and anxiety.</p> Yasir Abkar Jamali Jawad Ahmad Khan Imran Ali Jamali Hanozia Shah . Jeetendar Ravina Kumari Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 99 104 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1384 Study of Anatomical Divergences in Facial Artery Endings https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1380 <p>Facial artery supplies musculocutaneous tissue, visceral organs, and salivary glands at the upper cervical and facial level. This artery has wide range of anatomical variations in its course. <strong>Objective:</strong> To find the anatomical divergences in facial artery endings. <strong>Methods:</strong> It is a cross sectional study conducted at Jinnah international hospital, Abbottabad from January 2023 to July 2023 for duration of 6 months after taking approval from the ethical review committee. A group of 86 people were selected and anatomical course of facial artery was categorized in to four types. Angiographic images of each participant were evaluated by radiologist to categorize the course of facial artery. <strong>Results:</strong> The average Body Mass Index (BMI) of the participants was 28.3 ± 5.6. The study of angiographic images has concluded that 38.37% (n=33) has Type I course of facial artery, 47.67% (n=41) participants has Type II, 9.3% (n=8) participants has Type III and 4.65% (n=4) has Type IV category (p=0.01. Of the type I category of facial artery, 5 (15.2%) participants met the criteria of type IA, 7(21.2%) has Type IB and 21(63.6%) participants Type IC course of facial artery (p=0.01). <strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study has concluded that there exists vast variation in the anatomical course of facial artery in local population that streamlines with other studies conducted internationally. Facial artery with a nasal branch with or without alar endings is the most common anatomical variation.</p> Atif Hussain Humaira Imtiaz Sara Jadoon Sumaira Javed Munila Shabnum Khattak Robina Shaheen Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 105 108 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1380 Microdebrider Assisted Endoscopic versus Conventional Sinus Surgery in Sinonasal Polyposis: A Comparative Study https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1374 <p>For sinonasal polyposis, functional endoscopic sinus surgery or conventional is the standard surgical approach. Microdebrider assisted endoscopic sinus surgery provides patients with a better therapeutic approach. <strong>Objective:</strong> To assess and compare intraoperative, loss of smell, synechiae formation and polyp recurrence between microdebrider and conventional method in nasal polyposis patients. <strong>Methods:</strong> Cohort Study was carried out in Department of Ear Nose Throat, Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, 2022-2023. A total of sixty individuals with sinonasal polyposis, presenting in both genders, were included. Once written consent was obtained, the patient's comprehensive demographics were documented. Every patient was split evenly into two groups. Thirty patients each from Group A and Group B underwent endoscopic sinus surgery using traditional endoscopic tools and microdebrider respectively. Results were compared between the two groups in terms of synechiae production, length of operation, postoperative crusting, loss of smell, and intraoperative blood loss. <strong>Results: </strong>Age and gender differences between the two groups were not statistically significant (p-value &gt;0.05). Regarding synechiae and loss of scent, there was no discernible difference between the two groups. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The endoscopic sinus surgery with microdebrider was more effective for sinonasal polyposis as compared to conventional procedure</p> Waqas Khalily Aamna Durrani Sarwat Hassan Syed Amir Naveed Zia Us Salam Qazi Sabih Qamar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 116 119 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1374 Immunohistochemical (IHC) Expression of p16 in Various Grades of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) with Snuff Use in Tertiary Care Hospitals of Peshawar https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1369 <p>Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a significant health concern, with various factors influencing its development and progression. Understanding these factors, including p16 expression and clinicopathologic features, is crucial for improved diagnosis and treatment. <strong>Objective:</strong> To compare various grades of OSCC based on immunohistochemical expression of p16 and clinicopathologic parameters. <strong>Methods: </strong>The comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, Peshawar Medical College (PMC), and Peshawar Dental College (PDC) from August 2020 to August 2021. It included 53 cases of OSCC with documented snuff use history. Tumor sections were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and underwent immunohistochemical staining for p16 expression. Sample size calculation utilized G Power software. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.0, employing the Chi-Square test to assess categorical variables. <strong>Results: </strong>Among the 53 OSCC cases, the majority were male (66.0%) with ages ranging from 26 to 85 years, the most common age group being 51-70 years. The tongue was the primary site for OSCC development. Well-differentiated cases were predominant (64.2%), followed by moderate (20.8%) and poor grade cases (15.1%). However, no significant association was found between p16 expression and OSCC grades. Notably, p16 expression tended to be higher in snuff users and well-differentiated OSCC cases, although not statistically significant. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>Well-differentiated OSCC cases exhibited the highest expression of p16, followed by moderate and poorly differentiated cases. However, no significant correlation was observed between p16 expression and OSCC in snuff users.</p> Karishma Ali Sadaf Alam Natasha Kamran Sabeen Nasir Razia Aamir Sarah Yousuf Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 109 115 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1369 Characteristics of Bleeding Peptic Ulcers and the Outcome after Endoscopic Therapy at a Tertiary Care Centre of Pakistan https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1399 <p>Peptic ulcers are a global health concern. Bleeding episodes, a common complication require urgent intervention. Endoscopic therapy for managing bleeding peptic ulcers offering both diagnostic and therapeutic benefits. <strong>Objective: </strong>To analyze the characteristics of bleeding peptic ulcers and assess the outcomes following endoscopic therapy. <strong>Methods: </strong>A descriptive case series was conducted at Lahore General Hospital (LGH) between June 2021 and January 2022. Patients aged 18-80 with upper GI bleeding due to peptic ulcers or undergoing endoscopy with bleeding peptic ulcers were included. An 80mg bolus of omeprazole was given, followed by infusion at 8mg per hour and an urgent endoscopy was planned. Patients were observed for re-bleeding for 72 hours post-endoscopy. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of total 100 patients with upper GI bleeding, 70% of patients were male and 30% were female. The most common diagnosis was duodenal ulcers (75%), with the anterior wall being the most common site (86.67%). Dual therapy was administered in all patients, with hemostatic clips being applied in 68% of patients and electrocoagulation heat therapy being used in 32% of patients. Initial hemostasis was successful in 88% of patients treated endoscopically. But, 12% of patients experienced heavy bleeding during endotherapy and out of these, 8 patients required urgent laparotomy. Patients needed a second look endoscopy, 4 patients requiring angiographic embolization and 6 being managed with endotherapy. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Dual therapy, hemostatic clips and electrocoagulation heat therapy are effective in achieving initial hemostasis in most cases</p> Farwah Javed Ghias Ul Hassan Hafiz Habib Ur Rehman Khalil Shafqat Rasool Akif Dilshad Bilal Nasir Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 120 125 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1399 An Evaluation of Platelet Indices in Newly Diagnosed Cases of Acute Myocardial Infarction https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1449 <p>Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is characterized by prothrombotic phenotype associated with endothelial dysfunction, an increase in platelet activation and systemic inflammation. Platelet aggregation and activation are crucial in the formation of thrombi and acceleration of atherosclerosis, associated with unstable angina, sudden cardiac death is brought on by an acute myocardial infarction. <strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate the platelet-indices in newly diagnosed cases of acute myocardial infarction. <strong>Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional study was conducted during November 2022 to December 2023 in Pathology Department of Sheikh Zayed Medical College/Hospital Rahim Yar Khan. Samples were collected from the patients of AMI admitted to Emergency Ward and from healthy controls as well. Complete Blood Count (CBC) with platelet indices, platelet count, Mean Platelet Volume (MPV), Platelet Crit (PCT) and Platelet Distribution Width (PDW) were investigated on five-part automated hematology analyzer BT-PRO 2300. Analysis of the data was done by using SPSS version 20.0. <strong>Results: </strong>Total 140 patients were divided into a healthy control group (70) and newly diagnosed cases of acute myocardial infarction (70). Among diagnosed cases of AMI 46 (65.7%) had ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 24 cases (34.2%) got non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). It was found that AMI patients had lower platelet counts and PCT with higher MPV and PDW. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> It was concluded that the platelet indices (PDW, and PCT, MPV) are significant predictors of myocardial infarction. They might be applied as an easy, reliable, and economical way to anticipate an impending acute coronary event.</p> Muhammad Bilal Ghafoor Faiza Sarwar Babar Bashir Farah Yasmeen Sumrah Abbasi Zeeshan Hameed Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 126 130 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1449 Comparison of Oral Versus Intravenous Iron Therapy in Improving Hemoglobin Status in Patients of Chronic Kidney Disease https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1377 <p>Anemia (particularly iron deficiency) is an important concern in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) as it reflects the outcome of the disease. <strong>Objective:</strong> To compare the treatment efficacy of oral versus intravenous iron supplementation in improving the hemoglobin status of patients with chronic kidney disease not on hemodialysis or erythropoietin.<strong> Methods:</strong> Randomized controlled trial was carried out in Medicine Department of Pak Emirates Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from Jun 2023 to Dec 2023. Patients in Group I received intravenous iron sucrose 200 mg once a week diluted in 500 ml of 0.9% normal saline given over 60-90 minutes. Patients in Group O received oral iron supplementation in a dose of 325 mg (containing 65 mg of elemental iron) thrice a day taken one hour before taking their meals with a glass of water. The treatment was continued for 4 weeks.<strong> Results:</strong> Mean values of serum iron were 84.41±5.56 mcg/dl in Group I versus 84.67±5.43 mcg/dl in Group O before the start of therapy (p=0.726). Serum values for iron post-therapy were 143.40±6.01 mcg/dl in Group I versus 125.35±6.68 mcg/dl in Group O (p&lt;0.001). Mean values for serum hemoglobin were 7.74±0.74 g/dl in Group I versus 7.61±0.82 g/dl in Group O before the start of therapy (p=0.256). Serum values of Hb post-therapy were 12.31±0.71 g/dl in Group I versus 9.91±0.82 g/dl in Group O (p&lt;0.001).<strong> Conclusions:</strong> We conclude that Intravenous (IV) iron is superior to oral iron supplementation in improving iron stores and Hb levels in CKD patients not on dialysis and/or erythropoietin</p> Hamza Nawaz Faheem Ur Rehman Umer Talal Muhammad Farukh Habib Huda Nawaz Zainab Amin Ali Naseem Chattha Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 131 135 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1377 Evaluating the Impact of Smoking and Hyperlipidemia in Patients with Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1441 <p>Hyperlipidemia and Smoking are risk factors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in Pakistani community<strong>. </strong><strong>Objectives: </strong>To determine whether smoking and hyperlipidemia were associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. <strong>Methods: </strong>A comparative, cross-sectional study was conducted upon a sample of 200 male and female participants with different cardiac complications were selected and divided them into different groups like Group A and Group B. The individuals with medical complications such as severe chest pain, unexpected numbness or weakness in arms or legs and loss of vision were placed in Group A. While in Group-B 70 male and 30 female individuals with mild chest pain were include. BMI, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL and HDL levels and other demographics such as age, smoking habits were measured respectively. <strong>Results: </strong>In Group A (severe disease group) there were 75 males and 25 females while in Group B (mild disease group) 70 male and 30 female individuals were listed. The mean age in Group A (59.09 ± 0.01) and Group B (59.09 ± 0.01). The results showed significant difference in Group A and B mean cholesterol (279.9 ± 0.04 vs. 239.09 ± 0.04), Triglycerides (187.02 ± 0.01 vs. 127.02 ± 0.01), LDL (153.01 ± 0.02 vs. 123.01 ± 0.02), HDL (49.04 ± 0.01 vs. 40.01 ± 0.01) and (p value&lt;0.05). <strong>Conclusions: </strong>It was concluded that hyperlipidemia and smoking were significant (p≤0.05) risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, as seen by increasing levels of cholesterol, Triglycerides and LDL in cardiovascular patients.</p> Hassan Raza Beya Idrees Hasaan Ullah Khan Kainat Bakhtiar . Ahmed Sobaan Ahmad Arslan Shuja Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 136 140 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1441 Correlation of Demographic Characteristics to Bone Calcium and Vitamin D in Patient taking Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1251 <p>Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) works by blocking the hydrogen-potassium ATPase inhibitor H/K ATPase inhibitor located on gastric parietal cells. It blocks the last step of acid production that is why it is more potent and effective than other acid suppressants like H2 blockers, 99% of gastric acid secretion is reduced by using it. <strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate Demographic characteristics of individuals using proton pump inhibitor (PPI) all over Sindh. <strong>Methods:</strong> The Quasi experimental study contained 227 young individuals of age 20-45years having acid peptic disease, dyspepsia. Study was taken place in Medicine OPDs of Jamshoro and Hyderabad at Civil Hospital and duration of study was from 15<sup>th</sup> March 2020 to 15<sup>th</sup> September 2020. All individuals taking proton pump inhibitor were excluded from study. Sampling technique was non-probability convenient sampling. SPSS version 21.0 software was used to analyze the data. The student paired t test was used at the confidence interval of 95%, apart from it the P-value is observed ≤ 0.05. <strong>Results:</strong> There was no effect on demographic characteristics of individuals using proton pump inhibitor (PPI) all over Sindh on serum calcium and vitamin D levels. Therefore, p-value was seen 0.7 for the serum calcium and 0.1 for Serum Vitamin D. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> In any group of age, gender, residential status there is no effect on serum calcium and vitamin D with use of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for less than 6 months.</p> Yasra Memon Imran Ali Shaikh Imran Karim Tariq Zaffar Shaikh Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 140 143 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1251 Exploring Association of Level of Empathy with Demographic Factors among Medical and Dental Students, A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1587 <p>Being an effective physician, one must possess both clinical expertise and a specific range of emotional competencies, including empathy. <strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the empathy scores among medical and dental students and to correlate them with demographic factors like age, gender and academic year. <strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional survey was conducted involving 324 students from medical and dental programs at a private medical and dental college in Lahore. Empathy levels were measured using Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy- student version (JSPE-S). Data analysis was done using SPSS 24.0. Non-parametric tests were applied to find the significant difference between average scores of JSPE-S and all sub-scales across gender, age, academic year and medical program. <strong>Results: </strong>The mean empathy score on JSPE-S was 66.7. Difference of JSPE-S overall empathy score between age-groups was statistically significant (p-value 0.02). Among the medical and dental students significant difference was found between average scores of perceptive taking and compassionate care. No correlation was found between empathy scores and gender. However, empathy scores were low during initial years of medical school, being the highest in fourth year and then declining again. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: It was concluded that empathy is associated with demographical factors. Among the medical and dental students’ significant difference was found between average scores of perceptive taking and compassionate care. Although no difference in empathy scores was found between the two genders however, it declined as students gained more exposure to patients in their senior years</p> Fatima Aslam Sana Noor Aafia Malik . Rameen Gohar Javed Hafsah Nasir Anusha Nauroz Ali Mahnoor Sumaiya Nadeem Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 144 149 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1587 Utility of Distal Loopogram Prior to Post Typhoid Ileostomy Reversal https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1511 <p>The Distal loopogram assesses distal bowel health pre-stoma reversal. Yet, its benefits for typhoid perforation patients require further evaluation. <strong>Objective:</strong> To assess the utility of distal loopogram before the ileostomy stoma reversal in patients of typhoid perforation. <strong>Methods:</strong> A comparative, cross-sectional study was conducted upon a sample of 76 patients of both gender with age from 13 to 70 years and being operated for reversal of post-typhoid perforation loop ileostomy with or without distal loopogram study at Liaquat University Hospital Jamshoro and Hyderabad. Non-consenting patients and the patients with deranged kidney function or comorbid conditions in which contrast material is contraindicated or patients allergic to contrast agent or having tendency of atopy to any allergens like patients of bronchial asthma and those who lost to follow up were excluded from the sample. <strong>Results:</strong> The loopogram accurately predicted anastomotic leakage and mucocutaneous separation in all cases during surgery. Bowel stricture was predicted in 66.7% of cases, and peristomal dermatologic problems in 50%. This highlights the loopogram's utility in anticipating surgical challenges, especially for critical issues like anastomotic leakage and mucocutaneous separation. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> It was concluded that distal loopogram was valuable for assessing post-typhoid ileostomy reversal patients, offering detailed small intestine images for identifying complications and enhancing surgical planning, thus improving outcomes</p> Ali Raza Altaf Ahamd Talpur Shah Nawaz Khatti Ahmad Hussain Agha Mohammad Basil Rizvi Zeeshan Ahmad Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 150 154 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1511 Troponin I, Hyperlipidemia and Obesity as Predictor of Cardiovascular Complications: A Cross Sectional Study https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1442 <p>High levels of Troponin I, cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Body Mass Index (BMI) are predictor of cardiac complications. <strong>Objective: </strong>To investigate the predictive efficacy of Troponin I, BMI, and lipid profiles in detecting cardiovascular problems. <strong>Methods: </strong>300 male and female individuals were selected for current study. 100 normal individuals were in Control Group A, while 100 participants were placed in Group B all the individuals of Group B have the indications of different cardiac medical complications. BMI, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, Troponin I, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL levels were measured respectively. <strong>Results: </strong>In present study BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, Troponin I, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL blood serum levels of male and female in Group A and Group B were measured, the comparative analysis of above biomarkers showed a significant p-Value ≤ 0.05 change (0.02 ± 0.01, 183.01 ± 0.02, 120.01 ± 0.02, 87.01 ± 0.03, 44.01 ± 0.01), (0.02 ± 0.01, 172.01 ± 0.02, 130.01 ± 0.01, 88.01 ± 0.03, 42.01 ± 0.04), (0.39 ± 0.04, 272.01 ± 0.02, 180.01 ± 0.01, 138.01 ± 0.03, 37.01 ± 0.01) and ( 0.37 ± 0.04, 282.01 ± 0.02, 184.01 ± 0.01, 141.01 ± 0.03, 36.01 ± 0.01) were measured respectively. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The present study found that there were notable significant p-value &lt;0.05 differences in the blood serum levels of BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Troponin I, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and HDL in both the male and female groups in Groups A and B</p> Zainab Haq Syed Usama Shayan Zaidi Muhammad Nauman Shahid Maria Munir Tahreem Waheed Butt Nawal Yousuf Muhammad Nasir Shahbaz Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 155 162 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1442 Association of Osteoporosis with Antibiotic Resistance among Postmenopausal Women with Open Tibial Fractures https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1497 <p>Osteoporosis is common among postmenopausal women and can complicate the healing of open tibial fractures. Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern in treatment. Yet, the connection between osteoporosis and antibiotic resistance remains unclear, needing the investigation for improved patient care. <strong>Objective: </strong>To explore the association between osteoporosis and antibiotic resistance among postmenopausal female patients with open tibial fractures. <strong>Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional study was conducted at Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, with sample size of 240 postmenopausal women with open tibial fractures and signs of infection within one week of the fracture. Participants were chosen via non-probability sampling method. Bacteriological samples for culture were obtained from secretions adjacent to the infected tissue. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 21.0. <strong>Results: </strong>The majority of osteoporotic patients experienced Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) (42.5%), followed by falls from height (35.3%), while firearm injuries were less common (22.2%).<em> Staphylococcus aureus </em>was the most common pathogen in both osteoporotic (40%) and non-osteoporotic (39.9%) patients, followed by <em>Escherichia coli, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella, </em>and<em> Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>. Antibiotic resistance was predominantly found against <em>S. aureus, MRSA, Klebsiella </em>and<em> E. coli</em>. Co-Trimoxazole exhibited the highest resistance rates across all four bacterial organisms, ranging from 34% to 50%. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study found varying antibiotic resistance patterns across various pathogens, with notable resistance observed <em>MRSA</em> strains. Antibiotic resistance was observed in osteoporotic group, with Co-Trimoxazole showing the highest resistance rates.</p> Rasheed Ahmed Bhatti Lachman Das Maheshwari Adnan Ahmed Muhammad Faraz Jhokio Arshad Sattar Lakho Akbar Gohar Abro Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 163 168 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1497 Comparison of the Postoperative Pain Following Endodontic Irrigation Using 1.3% Versus 5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite in Mandibular Molars with Necrotic Pulps https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1403 <p>Endodontic irrigation plays a crucial role in root canal treatment, aiming to disinfect the root canal system be removing debris, bacteria and tissue remnants. <strong>Objective:</strong> To compare the postoperative pain between two concentrations (1.3% and 5.25%) of irrigation using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in lower molars with necrotic pulps. <strong>Methods:</strong> Sixty patients with nonvital pulps in mandibular molars, either gender, mature teeth with a closed apex or age between 18 and 60 years were included. Patients were assessed for postoperative pain in each group at 24 hours. The Chi-square test and student t-test were used to compare the postoperative pain outcome of both groups. <strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the patients in group A was 33.76 ± 4.06 years, and in group B was 32.10 ± 5.84 years. Pre-operative pain was statistically insignificant in both groups (p = 0.123), with an average VAS of 3.16 ± 0.64 in group A and 3.40 ± 0.49 in group B. The average pain was significantly lower at 1.33 ± 0.47 in the 1.3% sodium hypochlorite group compared to 1.63 ± 0.66 in the 5.25% NaOCl group (p = 0.051) after 24 hours. The average post-operative pain score was significantly higher in females compared to males in the 1.3% NaOCl group (p = 0.033). However, the average post-operative pain score was statistically insignificant between males and females in the 5.25% NaOCl group (p = 0.445). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Endodontic irrigation using 1.3% NaOCl was found to be more effective in reducing post-operative pain compared to endodontic irrigation using 5.25% NaOCl.</p> Ekta Rahim Mahwish Memon Parveen Memon Sunaila Parveen Azizullah Muhammad Nawaz Qureshi Abdul Ghani Shaikh Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 169 174 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1403 Pattern of Occurrence and Severity of Oral Submucous Fibrosis Among Habitual Gutkha, Areca Nut and Pan Chewers https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1422 <p>Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a complex, insidious and precancerous disease of the oral cavity. The high use of addictive substances in our local setting merits to be worked on finding out the resultant prevalence of OSF. <strong>Objective</strong>: To determine the frequency of occurrence and severity of OSF among habitual gutkha, areca nut and pan chewers. <strong>Methods: </strong>A total of 183 patients with presenting complaints of burning in mouth, difficulty in chewing and cheek biting and who are habitual chewer of areca nut, gutkha or pan for over 6 months with minimum frequency of 1 pack per day were recruited in this study at Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro, Pakistan. Severity of OSF was assessed as per clinical staging and findings was reported. <strong>Results: </strong>The average age of the patients was 34.57±9.98 years. Frequency of occurrence of OSF among habitual gutkha, areca nut and pan chewers was 100%. Regarding severity of OSF among habitual gutkha, areca nut and pan chewers was observed and found 31.15% stage 1, 51.91% stage 2 and 16.94% stage 3. Severity of stages were not statistically significant in all type of addiction. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: It was concluded that dose-dependent association between the frequency and length of daily use of commercially accessible areca nut and tobacco products and the increased risk of disease.</p> Taimoor Ali Khan Farah Irshad Faiza Hasan Kashif Ali Channar Bushra Arain Khurram Anwar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 175 181 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1422 Evaluation of Antibiotics by Disk Diffusion and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Breakpoints in Urinary Tract Infections https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1460 <p>Antibiotic resistance (ABR) has made it more challenging to treat uropathogenic organisms. It is impossible to compromise antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), which is essential and has a significant impact on infection treatment strategies. Although labor-intensive and technically challenging for everyday laboratory use, the agar dilution technique is appropriate for monitoring and assessing novel antimicrobials. <strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Agar dilution technique and disk diffusion as susceptibility test methodologies. <strong>Methods:</strong> This study was carried out at Khyber Girls Medical College (KGMC) Peshawar. Keeping in view the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines AST was executed. BIOMÉRIEUX® API® kits and gram staining were utilized for identification of bacteria. The disk diffusion was performed using Thermo Scientific<sup>TM</sup> Oxoid<sup>TM</sup> antibiotic discs of Co-trimoxazole, Levofloxacin, Nitrofurantoin and Fosfomycin. The MIC and zone of inhibitions for disk diffusion were noted according to the CLSI protocol. <strong>Results:</strong> 158 culture positive samples were isolated out of 680 total received. <em>Esherechia Coli</em> (<em>E. coli</em>) (74.1%) being the most isolated organism. In comparison of disk diffusion and agar dilution, categorical agreement for Levofloxacin, Cotrimoxazole, Nitrofurantoin and Fosfomycin were (82.28%, 72.15 %, 87.97% and 82.28%) respectively. Kappa coefficients of (0.64, 0.43, 0.57 and 0.37) (p &lt; 0.0001) were calculated for Levofloxacin, Co-trimoxazole, Nitrofurantoin, and Fosfomycin respectively, revealing considerable level of agreement for these antibiotics. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>It was concluded that Agar dilution is more precise than disk diffusion but being more labor intensive and technical. Disk diffusion can still produce significantly accurate results with less resource consumption.</p> Husnain Qadir Muhammad Abdur Rehman Sadaf Nasir Muhammad Adeel Alam Muhammad Ibrar Syed Luqman Shuaib Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 182 185 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1460 COVID-19 in Dialysis and Kidney Transplant Patients https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1389 <p>COVID-19 problems are more common in recipients of kidney transplants. There is, however, a dearth of information on the likelihood of allograft damage or death in kidney transplant recipients recuperating with COVID-19. <strong>Objective:</strong> To investigate the effect of Covid-19 on kidney transplant and dialysis patients. <strong>Methods: </strong>This Retrospective study was conducted at Department of Medicine, Avicena Medical College, Lahore from 1<sup>st</sup> October 2022 to 31<sup>st</sup> March 2023. One hundred patients with age &gt;18 years being kidney patients diagnosed with kidney failure or had a kidney allograft were included. Patients were grouped as either kidney transplant (Group A) or hemodialysis (Group B) where both groups were Covid-19 positive on diagnosis. The score represented 1 as fit and 9 as terminally ill. Any comorbidity related with these patients apart from the kidney failure was recorded including their obesity level. The eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) was considered as zero in dialysis cases with residual diuresis ≤ 200 mL/day and 5 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>. <strong>Results:</strong> There were 40% kidney transplant patients positive with Covid-19 infection and 60% with hemodialysis having positive Covid-19 infection. Majority of the patients in both groups A and B were males with a percentage of 57.5% and 59.4% respectively. The clinical frailty score was higher in group B than A. Odds ratio results showed that 28 days probability risk ratio of death was higher in the kidney transplant group A patients suffering from Covid-19 virus than hemodialysis. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Kidney transplant cases have higher severity of complication and death in cases where patients become corona virus positive.</p> Muahammad Afzal Abdul Matin Qaisar Syed Soban Ahmed Tirimzi Pershad Kumar Amir Naveed Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 186 189 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1389 Analysis of Different Treatment Approaches to Prevent Alveolar Osteitis https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1393 <p>Alveolar Osteitis (AO) is a complication that can arise after tooth extraction. It refers to a socket following extraction that lacks epithelium, blood clot, and has an exposed bony surface, often causing intense and radiating pain. <strong>Objectives:</strong> To determine the incidence of AO among different treatment groups undergoing tooth extraction. <strong>Methods:</strong> A prospective comparative study was conducted. Patients were enrolled and allocated into treatment groups: Control, Saline Irrigation, and chlorhexidine (CHX) Rinse. Outcome measures included the incidence of <u>AO</u>. Statistical analysis was performed to compare outcomes between treatment groups. <strong>Results:</strong> The overall occurrence rate of dry socket was 14.22%, with the highest incidence observed in patients who received saline irrigation. Conversely, the use of chlorhexidine rinse once postoperatively resulted in the lowest incidence rate. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> It was concluded that post-operative use of chlorhexidine rinse shows a promising and favorable outcome in preventing AO among patients. However, this study does not support the justification for irrigation with saline. Further well-designed clinical trials are necessary to validate these findings.</p> Muhammad Shairaz Sadiq Maria Noor Yaser Ishaq Tooba Saeed Amna Javed Syed Sobia Siddique Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 190 193 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1393 Comparison of Discectomy versus Sequestrectomy in Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Retrospective Cohort Study https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1348 <p>Lumbar disc herniation is a common spinal condition characterized by the protrusion or extrusion of intervertebral disc material. This extruded or protruded disc material compresses the spinal nerves causing various symptoms such as low back pain radiculopathy and functional limitation. <strong>Objective:</strong> To assess and compare the outcomes of pain relief as well as functional improvement among patients who underwent Discectomy and Sequestrectomy. <strong>Methods:</strong> A retrospective cohort study was conducted at the neck and surgery department, Combined Military Hospital (CMH), Quetta. A total of 80 patients were included in the study, 26 (32.5%) patients underwent Sequestrectomy while microdiscectomy was done in 54 (67.5%) patients. The data collection proforma consisted of demographic information, baseline clinical characteristics, description of surgical procedures, pre and postoperative VAS scores, and functional outcomes assessed by the Oswestry disability index. The statistics used in this study were independent t-test and paired t-tests. <strong>Results:</strong> The study results showed no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the groups. Both procedures showed a significant improvement in pain levels, in terms of lowered VAS scores and ODI scores. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The procedure of sequestrectomy has shown significant improvements in postoperative pain relief and functional outcomes as compared to microdiscectomy.</p> Asad Ullah Mehmood Muhammad Shakeel Muhammad Talha Shahzad Ahmad Qasmi Waseem Afzal Shahzad Inam Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 194 198 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1348 Comparison of Fat Graft in Post-Burn Scars versus Platelet-Rich Plasma Regarding Scar Quality and Healing https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1407 <p>Post-burn scars occur when burns damage the skin leading inevitable injury. Various techniques are applied for treatments and reduction so f these scares. <strong>Objective: </strong>To compare the effect of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) and fat graft in post-burn scars on the outcome of the healing process and quality of chronic wounds. <strong>Methods: </strong>One hundred cases were equally divided in group I (platelet-rich plasma) and group II (fat graft), age between 20-60 years were enrolled. The patients were those who were having post traumatic or and post burn chronic wounds which were within the duration of ≥3 months. A 5cc blood was withdrawn from each patient. Fat graft and platelet rich plasma were prepared, applied and compared for up to 12 weeks for their wound size, healing rate and scar quality. <strong>Results: </strong>There was no difference win age or gender within groups with a mean age of 43.46 and 44.36 years in group I and Group I. The comparative analysis within the original wound size and decrease in it within the 4 weeks’ time followed by 12 weeks’ time presented significant variance with both procedures bringing sufficient minimizing in the size, however a slight better result was presented in group II in comparison with Group I. Average healing rate was higher in group II than group I. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>Both procedures are efficient in terms of scar quality and healing of post burn scar. However, within the two groups the fat graft is more efficient and reliable with high healing time and rate.</p> Muhammad Nasrullah Muhammad Amin Samia Fatima Sana Imdad Hirra Rehman Allavi Muhammad Imran Aiza Latif Aftab Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 199 204 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1407 Effectiveness of Balloon Tamponade with a Condom Catheter versus Using a Sengstaken-Blakemore Tube in Patients with Primary Postpartum Hemorrhage https://thejas.com.pk/index.php/pjhs/article/view/1387 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">Balloon </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">tamponade</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0"> or </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">Sengstaken</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">-Blakemore tube, are gaining fame because of its low complications, low invasiveness, rapid approach, painless removal, and rapid identification of failed cases in primary postpartum </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">hemorrhage</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0"> To compare the efficacy of balloon </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">tamponade</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0"> versus </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">Sengstaken</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">-Blakemore tube in patients with primary postpartum </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">hemorrhage</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">Methods: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">This comparative/cross-sectional was conducted at the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">Bahawal</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0"> Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur from July 2023 to December 2023. A total of 64 patients (32 in each group) females aged between 18 and 40 years of parity 1-6, gravida 1-6, gestational age 31 to 41 weeks, with primary postpartum </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">hemorrhage</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0"> were recruited. Females in balloon tamponade group underwent balloon tamponade, and those in </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">Sengstaken</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">-Blakemore tube group underwent </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">Sengstaken</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">-Blakemore tube insertion and balloon removal after 24 hours. The effectiveness was labelled as yes where there was no blood loss for 24 hours after the removal of the pack or foleys. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0"> The mean age was 31.05 ± 5.92 years. The effectiveness of the treatment was observed among 51 (79.7%) females. In balloon tamponade group, mean blood loss was 787.81 ± 265.11 ml and 791.34 ± 254.78 ml in </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">Sengstaken</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">-Blakemore tube group. In balloon tamponade group, 29 (90.6%) patients had effectiveness of treatment while 22 (68.8%) females in </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">Sengstaken</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">-Blakemore tube group reported effectiveness (p=0.030). </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">Conclusion: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW209054566 BCX0">Tamponade with a balloon attached to a condom catheter were more successfully in stop bleeding after delivery of primary PPH cases. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW209054566 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6}"> </span></p> Shamas un Nisa Aisha Javed Mujeeb ur Rehman Nadia Babar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 205 209 10.54393/pjhs.v5i04.1387