The Effectiveness of Different Doses or Types of Vitamin D Supplementation in HIV-Positive Individuals in Lahore

Effectiveness of Vitamin D Supplementation in HIV-Positive Individuals


  • Fatima Majeed Department of Public Health, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Javeria Saleem Department of Public Health, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Kifayat Ullah Department of Public Health, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Shamsa Rafique Department of Public Health, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Gul Mehar Javaid Bukhari Department of Community Medicine, Rawalpindi Medical University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  • Aimen Dilnawaz University Hospitals Bristol and Weston NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, United Kingdom
  • Ali Tariq Department of Public Health, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Ferheen Shahbaz Department of Public Health, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan



HIV, ART, Vitamin D, Pakistan, AIDS, Vitamin D3, 25(0H)-D


The average lifespan of people suffering from HIV-AIDS is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, with Vitamin D deficiency as one of the most common phenomena among them. Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) could significantly enhance the quality of life of HIV-AIDS patients; however, it further decreases Vitamin D serum levels among them.  Objectives: To evaluate the impact of vitamin D supplementation on immune function, viral load, and other health outcomes in HIV-positive individuals. Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted on a sample of 95 HIV-diagnosed patients aged 19 to 50 years in Punjab, Pakistan. Patients were selected from an AIDS control clinic and prescribed antiretroviral therapy. Baseline assessments were conducted using a structured evaluation questionnaire, and biochemical results were used to classify vitamin D deficiency. Results: The study presents information on PCR viral load counts in HIV patients, including minimum (50), and maximum (750,000) values, mean (32,475) with standard deviation (155,343), 5% sheared mean (28), and the 95% confidence interval (17,802 to 47,148) for the average. Results showed that HIV-positive patients taking vitamin D supplementation had a lower mean rank (50.07) compared to those not taking supplements (57.00), with a difference of 275.5 in the sum of ranks between the two groups. Inferential statistics suggested that vitamin D plays a significant role in improving the prognosis of HIV patients taking ART, with a significance value of 0.0032.  Conclusion: The present study concludes that Vitamin D supplementation has a significant role in improving the life status of HIV patients.


Dawson-Hughes B. Patient education: Vitamin D deficiency (Beyond the Basics). 2021. [Last cited: 20th Mar 2023]. Available at:

Weinberg M and Schambelan M. Bone and calcium disorders in patients with HIV. 2023. [Last cited: 20th Mar 2023]. Available at: What are HIV and AIDS. 2023. [Last cited: 20th Mar 2023]. Available at:

Steenhoff AP, Schall JI, Samuel J, Seme B, Marape M, Ratshaa B, et al. Vitamin D₃ supplementation in Batswana children and adults with HIV: a pilot double blind randomized controlled trial. PloS One. 2015 Feb; 10(2): e0117123. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117123.

Coussens AK, Naude CE, Goliath R, Chaplin G, Wilkinson RJ, Jablonski NG. High-dose vitamin D3 reduces deficiency caused by low UVB exposure and limits HIV-1 replication in urban Southern Africans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2015 Jun; 112(26): 8052-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1500909112.

Johnson AS, Hall HI, Hu X, Lansky A, Holtgrave DR, Mermin J. Trends in diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States, 2002-2011. JAMA. 2014 Jul; 312(4): 432-4. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.8534.

Ajayi AI, Awopegba OE, Adeagbo OA, Ushie BA. Low coverage of HIV testing among adolescents and young adults in Nigeria: Implication for achieving the UNAIDS first 95. PloS One. 2020 May; 15(5): e0233368. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0233368.

Bitnun A. Vitamin D Supplementation and CD4 Count in HIV-Infected Children. 2014. [Last cited: 20th Mar 2023]. Available at:

Cahn P, Fourie J, Grinsztejn B, Hodder S, Molina JM, Ruxrungtham K, et al. Week 48 analysis of once-daily vs. twice-daily darunavir/ritonavir in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients. AIDS. 2011 Apr; 25(7): 929-39. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328345ee95.

Arribas JR, Clumeck N, Nelson M, Hill A, van Delft Y, Moecklinghoff C. The MONET trial: week 144 analysis of the efficacy of darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy versus DRV/r plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, for patients with viral load< 50 HIV‐1 RNA copies/mL at baseline. HIV Medicine. 2012 Aug; 13(7): 398-405. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2012.00989.x.

Branson BM, Handsfield HH, Lampe MA, Janssen RS, Taylor AW, Lyss SB, et al. Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Recommendations and Reports. 2006 Sep; 55(14): 1-17.

Bikle D. Vitamin D: Production, Metabolism and Mechanisms of Action. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText. Com; 2017.

Ezeamama AE, Guwatudde D, Wang M, Bagenda D, Kyeyune R, Sudfeld C, et al. Vitamin-D deficiency impairs CD4+ T-cell count recovery rate in HIV-positive adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy: a longitudinal study. Clinical Nutrition. 2016 Oct; 35(5): 1110-7. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2015.08.007.

Zhang B, Yan XY, Li YJ, Liu ZM, Lu ZH, Jia ZW. Epidemics of HIV infection among heavy drug users of depressants only, stimulants only, and both depressants and stimulants in Mainland China: a series, cross-sectional studies. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020 Aug; 17(15): 5483. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17155483.

Lehmann B and Meurer M. Vitamin D metabolism. Dermatologic Therapy. 2010 Jan; 23(1): 2-12. doi: 10.1111/j.1529-8019.2009.01286.x.

Di Perri G, Audagnotto S, Gobbi F, Trentini L, Calcagno A, Bonora S. Natural History of HIV Infection and Evolution of Antiretroviral Therapy. Cardiovascular Disease in AIDS. 2009: 1-13. doi: 10.1007/978-88-470-0761-1_1.

Boonstra H. Young people need help in preventing pregnancy and HIV; How will the world respond. Guttmacher Policy Review. 2007 Aug; 10(3): 2-8.

Branch A. Vitamin D Supplements for HIV-positive Patients on cART. 2017. [Last cited: 20th Apr 2023]. Available at:

Brehm JM, Schuemann B, Fuhlbrigge AL, Hollis BW, Strunk RC, Zeiger RS, et al. Serum vitamin D levels and severe asthma exacerbations in the Childhood Asthma Management Program study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2010 Jul; 126(1): 52-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2010.03.043.

Hollis BW, Johnson D, Hulsey TC, Ebeling M, Wagner CL. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: Double‐blind, randomized clinical trial of safety and effectiveness. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2011 Oct; 26(10): 2341-57. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.463.



DOI: 10.54393/pjhs.v4i04.673
Published: 2023-04-30

How to Cite

Majeed, F. ., Saleem, J. ., Ullah, K. ., Rafique, S. ., Mehar Javaid Bukhari, G. ., Dilnawaz, A. ., Tariq, A. ., & Shahbaz, F. . (2023). The Effectiveness of Different Doses or Types of Vitamin D Supplementation in HIV-Positive Individuals in Lahore: Effectiveness of Vitamin D Supplementation in HIV-Positive Individuals. Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences, 4(04), 43–48.



Original Article


Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>