Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Urolithiasis using Computed Tomography

Urinary Tract Urolithiasis using Computed Tomography


  • Shehr Bano University Institute of Radiological and Medical Imaging Sciences University of Lahore, Gujrat Campus
  • Akash John University Institute of Radiological and Medical Imaging Sciences, University of Lahore, Gujrat Campus
  • Abid Ali Department of Allied Health Sciences, University of Lahore, Gujrat Campus
  • Hateem Qaiser The University of Chenab
  • Nayyar Ashfaq The University of Chenab




Nephrolithiasis, Urinary tract stones, Calcium oxalate stones


Renal stone disease is the most common urinary system disease, existing in third after urinary tract infection and prostate disease in urological departments and accounting for 10-15% of all cases. Objective: To evaluate urolithiasis on Computed Tomography (CT KUB). Methods: It is a cross sectional study carried out at the private Sector Hospital of Gujrat, Pakistan over 4 months from December 2021 to March 2022. A sample size of 50 patients was calculated via a convenient sampling approach using the mean from previous related studies. Patients with kidney stones diagnosed on CT KUB scan were included after informed consent. The data was analyzed and entered using SPSS version 21. Results: The result of this study revealed that people in their 51s and 60s are the most affected and that males are 56% more likely than females to have kidney stones. The right kidney is the most prevalent location for stones. The calcium oxalate kidney stone scale ranged from 1 to 50 mm in diameter. And the correlation between the location of kidney stone and size is 0.94 so there is a moderate correlation between stone size and location. Conclusion: In conclusion, the CT equipment is fully capable of detecting and measuring stones, as well as determining their type and major component


Khan SR, Pearle MS, Robertson WG, Gambaro G, Canales BK, Doizi S, et al. Kidney stones. Nature Reviews Disease Primers 2016 Feb 25;2:16008. doi: 10.1038/nrdp.2016.8.

Kamadjou C, Ambomatei C, Mbassi A, Kameni A, Kolela DB, Angwafor F. Evaluation of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy in the Management of Renal and Ureteral Calculi. Open Journal of Urology. 2021;11(12):474-485.doi.org/10.4236/oju.2021.1112048

Black KM, Law H, Aldoukhi A, Deng J, Ghani KR. Deep learning computer vision algorithm for detecting kidney stone composition. British Journal of Urology 2020 Jun;125(6):920-924. doi: 10.1111/bju.15035.

Rode J, Bazin D, Dessombz A, Benzerara Y, Letavernier E, Tabibzadeh N, et al. Daily Green Tea Infusions in Hypercalciuric Renal Stone Patients: No Evidence for Increased Stone Risk Factors or Oxalate-Dependent Stones. Nutrients. 2019 Jan 24;11(2):256. doi: 10.3390/nu11020256.

Saçlı B, Aydınalp C, Cansız G, Joof S, Yilmaz T, Çayören M, et al. Microwave dielectric property based classification of renal calculi: Application of a kNN algorithm. Comput Biol Med. 2019 Sep;112:103366. doi: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2019.103366.

Ranasinha N, Chandrasekera S. Symptoms, Signs and Basic Investigations for Urinary Calculi. InPractical Management of Urinary Stone 2021,(3):10.Springer, Singapore.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-4193-0_1

Alhassan WM. Characterization of Renal Stone in Sudanese Population: Sudan University of Science & Technology; 2016.

Thongprayoon C, Vaughan LE, Chewcharat A, Kattah AG, Enders FT, Kumar R, et al. Risk of Symptomatic Kidney Stones During and After Pregnancy. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 2021 Sep;78(3):409-417. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2021.01.008.

Huang Y, Zhang YH, Chi ZP, Huang R, Huang H, Liu G, et al. The Handling of Oxalate in the Body and the Origin of Oxalate in Calcium Oxalate Stones. Urologia Internationalis 2020;104(3-4):167-176. doi: 10.1159/000504417.

Haghighatdoost F, Sadeghian R, Abbasi B. The Associations Between Tea and Coffee Drinking and Risk of Calcium-Oxalate Renal Stones. Plant Foods Human Nutrition. 2021 Dec;76(4):516-522. doi: 10.1007/s11130-021-00933-4..

Roberson NP, Dillman JR, O’Hara SM, DeFoor WR, Reddy PP, Giordano RM, et al. Comparison of ultrasound versus computed tomography for the detection of kidney stones in the pediatric population: a clinical effectiveness study. Pediatric radiology. 2018;48(7):962-972. doi: 10.1007/s00247-018-4099-7.

Khan SR, Canales BK, Dominguez-Gutierrez PR. Randall's plaque and calcium oxalate stone formation: role for immunity and inflammation. Nature Reviews Nephrology 2021 Jun;17(6):417-433. doi: 10.1038/s41581-020-00392-1.

Addar A, Aljuhayman A, Ghazwani Y, Al Khayal A, Alasker A, Emiliani E, et al. Bilateral same session renal stone surgery tolerance and complications. Urology Annals. 2021 Oct-Dec;13(4):336-339. doi: 10.4103/UA.UA_128_20.

Rkik M, Elidrissi O, Ghannam Y, Dakir M, Debbagh A, Aboutaieb R. Giant hydronephrosis secondary to ureteral calculi in adults: Case report and literature review. Urology Case Report 2021 Feb 3;36:101591. doi: 10.1016/j.eucr.2021.101591.

Wigner P, Grębowski R, Bijak M, Szemraj J, Saluk-Bijak J. The Molecular Aspect of Nephrolithiasis Development. Cells. 2021 Jul 29;10(8):1926. doi: 10.3390/cells10081926.

Olivo RE, Davenport CA, Diamantidis CJ, Bhavsar NA, Tyson CC, Hall R, et al. Obesity and synergistic risk factors for chronic kidney disease in African American adults: the Jackson Heart Study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2018 Jun 1;33(6):992-1001. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfx230.

Corbo J, Wang J. Kidney and Ureteral Stones. Emergency medicine clinics of North America 2019 Nov;37(4):637-648. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2019.07.004.

Aune D, Mahamat-Saleh Y, Norat T, Riboli E. Body fatness, diabetes, physical activity and risk of kidney stones: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. European journal of epidemiology.2018 Nov;33(11):1033-1047. doi: 10.1007/s10654-018-0426-4.

Donaldson JF, Ruhayel Y, Skolarikos A, MacLennan S, Yuan Y, Shepherd R, et al. Treatment of Bladder Stones in Adults and Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis on Behalf of the European Association of Urology Urolithiasis Guideline Panel. European Urology 2019 Sep;76(3):352-367. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2019.06.018.

Hughes T, Ho HC, Pietropaolo A, Somani BK. Guideline of guidelines for kidney and bladder stones. Turkish journal of urology 2020 Nov;46(Supp. 1):S104-S112. doi: 10.5152/tud.2020.20315.

Abufaraj M, Xu T, Cao C, Waldhoer T, Seitz C, D'andrea D, et al. Prevalence and Trends in Kidney Stone Among Adults in the USA: Analyses of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2018 Data. European urology focus 2021 Nov;7(6):1468-1475. doi: 10.1016/j.euf.2020.08.011.

Mao W, Zhang H, Xu Z, Geng J, Zhang Z, Wu J, et al. Relationship between urine specific gravity and the prevalence rate of kidney stone. Translational Andrology and Urology 2021 Jan;10(1):184-194. doi: 10.21037/tau-20-929.

Thongprayoon C, Krambeck AE, Rule AD. Determining the true burden of kidney stone disease. Nature reviews. Nephrology 2020 Dec;16(12):736-746. doi: 10.1038/s41581-020-0320-7.

Nouri A, Hassali M. Assessment of kidney stone disease prevalence in a teaching hospital. African Journal of Urology. 2018;24(3):180-185. doi.org/10.1016/j.afju.2018.05.003

Babiker MSO. Study of Renal Stone Composition using Computed Tomography: Sudan University of Science and Technology; 2017.

Mustfa, Zeinab Abo ALGasim Khalil . Characterization of Urinary Tract Urolithiasis using Computed Tomography Zeinab Abo ALGasim Khalil Mustafa ; Hussein Ahmed Hassan .- Khartoum:Sudan University of Science and Technology,College of Medical Radiologic Science,2020: 57



DOI: 10.54393/pjhs.v3i01.46
Published: 2022-06-30

How to Cite

Bano, S., John, A. ., Ali, A. ., Qaiser, H. ., & Ashfaq, N. . (2022). Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Urolithiasis using Computed Tomography: Urinary Tract Urolithiasis using Computed Tomography. Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences, 3(01), 03–06. https://doi.org/10.54393/pjhs.v3i01.46



Original Article


Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>