Examination of Blood Urea, State of Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants Associated with Oral Contraceptive Pills Among Female Athletes

Examination of factors associated with Oral Contraceptive Pills among Female Athletes


  • Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Butt Department of Sports Sciences & Physical Education, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Jamil Center for Physical Education, Health and Sports Sciences University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
  • Alamgir Khan Department of Sports Sciences & Physical Education, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Ausaf Chaudhary International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Aftab Ahmad Jan Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KPK, Pakistan
  • Manzoor Khan Department of Sports Sciences Physical Education, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
  • Zeliha Selamoglu Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Nigde Ömer Halisdemir University, Nigde, Turkey
  • Elifsena Canan Alp Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University Meram, Konya, Turkey
  • Muhammad R oman Al Ala Durrani Department of Sports Sciences & Physical Education, University of Science & Technology, Bannu, Pakistan




Blood Urea, Oxidative Stress, Oral Contraceptive Pills, Females Athletes


Blood urea, reactive oxygen species, and antioxidants are interconnected biochemical parameters. In case of any adverse effects of any agents, it directly affects the body's physiological activities. Objective: To examine blood urea, the state of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants associated with oral contraceptive pills (OCP) among female athletes. Methods: Participants of the study were randomly selected as participants of the study. The users of OCP were placed in the Experimental Group (EG), and the nonuser of OCP was put in (CG). Each group was comprised of twenty-five subjects. 5 ml blood was collected from all the subjects. Each subject was marked with a different identification code. The blood urea level was measured through the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test. The balancing state of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants was measured through FRAP Assay. Results collected through both BUN and FRAP were calculated through the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS, version 26). Results: The mean and standard deviation of EG in term of blood urea was 29.23 ±7.89; df was 82, t-score was -.822, P- value was .413. A significant difference in term of FRAP between CG and EG was found, such as the mean and SD of CG were 137.95±.20.87, means and SD of EG was 110.54±.39.22, the t score was 3.23, and the P value was .002. Conclusions: Results show that OCP significantly impacts blood urea and causes an imbalance in both reactive oxygen species and antioxidants among users.


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DOI: 10.54393/pjhs.v3i06.356
Published: 2022-11-30

How to Cite

Zafar Iqbal Butt, M. ., Jamil, M. ., Khan, A. ., Chaudhary, A. ., Ahmad Jan, A. ., Khan, M. ., Selamoglu, Z. ., Canan Alp, E. ., & oman Al Ala Durrani, M. R. (2022). Examination of Blood Urea, State of Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants Associated with Oral Contraceptive Pills Among Female Athletes : Examination of factors associated with Oral Contraceptive Pills among Female Athletes. Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences, 3(06), 287–290. https://doi.org/10.54393/pjhs.v3i06.356



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