Association of Diet Consumption with Gallbladder Changes in Females After Birth of Child

Diet Consumption with Gallbladder Changes


  • Asma Abdul Razzak Medicare Cardiac and General Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Sara Shafi Rahu Jinnah Medical Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Javeria Usmani Jinnah Medical Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan



Gallstone, Gallbladder, Postpartum


The postpartum period is characterized by remarkable physiological adaptations to accommodate the demands of childbirth and lactation. These physiological changes, coupled with the unique nutritional needs of both the mother and newborn, can lead to gallbladder stasis and increased cholesterol absorption in the gallbladder. Objective: To assess the correlation between diet consumption and gallbladder changes in females after childbirth. Methods: This observational study was conducted at the department of Gastroenterology, Jinnah Medical and Dental College, Sohail University, Karachi, Pakistan from December 2022 to June 2022. Females of reproductive age who had normal child delivery were evaluated after 6 weeks of delivery. The medical examination, anthropometric measures, nutritional assessment, and laboratory testing were performed in all eligible females. An ultrasonographic was done after a typical fatty food in order to assess gallbladder changes. SPSS version 21.0 was used to do statistically analysis. Results: The mean age was 28.89 ± 4.73 and mean BMI was 22.78 ± 4.09 kg/m2. Of 100 females, 17% had gallbladder stasis, 26% had gallstones, and 17% had sludge. The females with low protein consumption had significantly higher proportion of gallbladder stasis as compared to females with high protein consumption in diet (76.5% vs 23.5%, p=0.001). Furthermore, females with high carbohydrate (61.5% vs 38.5%, p=0.011) and fructose (53.8% vs 46.2%, p=0.037) consumption had significantly higher proportion of gallstones as compared to females with low consumption. Conclusions: High protein consumption was linked to gallbladder stasis, while high carbohydrate and fructose intake were associated with an increased proportion of gallstones.


Stinton LM and Shaffer EA. Epidemiology of gallbladder disease: cholelithiasis and cancer. Gut and Liver. 2012 Apr; 6(2): 172. doi: 10.5009/gnl.2012.6.2.172. DOI:

Nimanya S, Ocen W, Makobore P, Bua E, Ssekitooleko B, Oyania F. Prevalence and risk factors of gallstone disease in patients undergoing ultrasonography at Mulago hospital, Uganda. African Health Sciences. 2020 Apr; 20(1): 383-91. doi: 10.4314/ahs. v20i1.44. DOI:

Rawla P, Sunkara T, Thandra KC, Barsouk A. Epidemiology of gallbladder cancer. Clinical and Experimental Hepatology. 2019 May; 5(2): 93-102. doi: 10.5114/ceh.2019.85166. DOI:

Jones MW and Deppen JG. Gallbladder mucocele. StatPearls Publishing, Treasure Island (FL); 2018.

Soundararajan R, Dutta U, Bhatia A, Gupta P, Nahar U, Kaman L, et al. Two-dimensional Shear Wave Elastography: Utility in Differentiating Gallbladder Cancer From Chronic Cholecystitis. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine 2023 Jan; 42(7): 1577-85. doi: 10.1002/jum.16178. DOI:

Celaj S and Kourkoumpetis T. Gallstones in pregnancy. JAMA. 2021 Jun; 325(23): 2410. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.4502. DOI:

Chauhan G and Tadi P. Physiology, Postpartum Changes. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023.

European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of gallstones. Journal of Hepatology. 2016 Jul; 65(1) : 146-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2016.03.005. DOI:

Di Ciaula A, Wang DQ, Portincasa P. An update on the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. 2018 Mar; 34(2): 71. doi: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000423. DOI:

Wong AC and Ko CW. Carbohydrate intake as a risk factor for biliary sludge and stones during pregnancy. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 2013 Sep; 47(8): 700. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e318286fdb0. DOI:

Kazmi SA, Saeed S, Shafique A, Dynamo MM, Hashmi JS, Khan SA. To evaluate causes of delayed presentation of Gall stone disease: A retrospective study at Punjab Rangers Teaching Hospital, Lahore. Pakistan Journal of Surgery. 2020 Oct; 36(4): 281-5.

Aceves-Ayala JM, Rojas-Solís PF, Sotelo-Casas AY, Sánchez-Reynoso YA, Bautista-López CA, Orozco CA. Synchronous gallbladder perforation and appendicitis in a pediatric patient. Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports. 2022 Nov; 86: 102451. doi: 10.1016/j.epsc.2022.102451. DOI:

Ibrahim MI, Saim M, Khan RA, Mehmood R, Hasan R. Intrahepatic Gallbladder: A Case Report. Life and Science. 2022 Apr; 3(2): 03. doi: 10.37185/Lns.1.1.231. DOI:

de Bari O, Wang TY, Liu M, Paik CN, Portincasa P, Wang DQ. Cholesterol cholelithiasis in pregnant women: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment. Annals of Hepatology. 2014 Nov; 13(6): 728-45. doi: 10.1016/S1665-2681(19)30975-5. DOI:

Tagliaferri AR, Ansari N, Cavanagh Y. A Unique Case of Gallbladder Agenesis and Cholangiocarcinoma. Cureus. 2023 Feb; 15(2): 3-11. doi: 10.7759/cureus.35224. DOI:

Soma-Pillay P, Nelson-Piercy C, Tolppanen H, Mebazaa A. Physiological changes in pregnancy: review articles. Cardiovascular Journal of Africa. 2016 Mar; 27(2): 89-94. doi: 10.5830/CVJA-2016-021. DOI:

Kazi FN, Ghosh S, Sharma JP, Saravanan S, Patil S, naaz Kazi F, et al. Trends in Gallbladder Disease in Young Adults: A Growing Concern. Cureus. 2022 Aug;14(8):1-6. doi: 10.7759/cureus.28555. DOI:

Aparicio E, Jardí C, Bedmar C, Pallejà M, Basora J, Arija V, et al. Nutrient intake during pregnancy and post-partum: ECLIPSES study. Nutrients. 2020 May; 12(5): 1325. doi: 10.3390/nu12051325. DOI:

de Castro MB, Cunha DB, Araujo MC, Bezerra IN, Adegboye AR, Kac G, et al. High protein diet promotes body weight loss among Brazilian postpartum women. Maternal & Child Nutrition. 2019 Jul; 15(3): e12746. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12746. DOI:

Wirth J, Joshi AD, Song M, Lee DH, Tabung FK, Fung TT, et al. A healthy lifestyle pattern and the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease: results from 2 prospective cohort studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2020 Sep; 112(3): 586-94. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa154. DOI:

Portincasa P, Moschetta A, Palasciano G. Cholesterol gallstone disease. The Lancet. 2006 Jul; 368(9531): 230-9. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69044-2. DOI:

Sachdeva S, Khan Z, Ansari MA, Khalique N, Anees A. Lifestyle and gallstone disease: scope for primary prevention. Indian journal of community medicine: official publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine. 2011 Oct; 36(4): 263. doi: 10.4103/0970-0218.91327. DOI:

Park Y, Kim D, Lee JS, Kim YN, Jeong YK, Lee KG, et al. Association between diet and gallstones of cholesterol and pigment among patients with cholecystectomy: a case-control study in Korea. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. 2017 Dec; 36: 1-7. doi: 10.1186/s41043-017-0116-y. DOI:

Di Ciaula A, Garruti G, Frühbeck G, De Angelis M, De Bari O, Wang DQ, et al. The role of diet in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones. Current medicinal chemistry. 2019 Jun; 26(19): 3620-38. doi: 10.2174/0929867324666170530080636. DOI:



DOI: 10.54393/pjhs.v4i08.962
Published: 2023-08-31

How to Cite

Abdul Razzak, A. ., Rahu, S. S. ., & Usmani, J. . (2023). Association of Diet Consumption with Gallbladder Changes in Females After Birth of Child: Diet Consumption with Gallbladder Changes. Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences, 4(08), 25–28.



Original Article