Diabetes Self Care, Resilience and Quality of Life among Patients with Type II Diabetes

Self Care, Resilience and Quality of Life among Patients with Type II Diabetes


  • zahra khan Department of Applied Psychology, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Umm E Rubab kazmi Department of Applied Psychology, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan




Diabetes, self-care, resilience, quality of life, clinical psychologists


Diabetes is highly prevalent disease in Pakistan, and it greatly impacts the quality of life of its patients. Diabetes self-care and resilience can be significant in this regard. Objective: To find out the relation among diabetes self-care, resilience, and quality of life in patients with type II diabetes. Methods: The correlation research design was used along with purposive sampling to select the sample (N=200) from Government and private hospitals of Lahore. 11 items Summary Diabetes Self-care Activity scale (SDSCA), 18 items Trait Resilience Scale (TRS) and 15 items Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOL) scale were used in the study. Researchers translated English versions of TRS and DQOL scales into Urdu language following the Lexion Equivalence method of translation. Results: Correlation analysis revealed significant positive relation between general diet and resilience (.61, p< 0.5), Blood glucose and resilience (.53, p < 0.5) and between resilience and quality of life (.77, p<0.5).  Multiple linear regression revealed that self-care activities significantly predict quality of life. Conclusions: The more the patients are following self-care activities, the better will be their quality of life. The study will be helpful for clinical psychologists to boost the resilience of patients with diabetes


World Health Organization. Obesity. [Last cited on: 20th Jan 2020]. Available at: https://www.who.int/health-topics/obesity/en.

International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes atlas 9th edition. [Last cited on: 23rd Mar 2022]. Avaliable at: https://diabetesatlas.org/atlas/ninth-edition/.

DeFronzo RA, Ferrannini E, Groop L, Henry RR, Herman WH, Holst JJ, et al. Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2015 Jul; 1: 15019. doi: 10.1038/nrdp.2015.19

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Statistics Report. [Last cited on: 18 Feb 2022]. Avaliable at: https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/data/statistics-report/index.html.

Meo SA, Sheikh SA, Sattar K, Akram A, Hassan A, Meo AS, et al. Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among Men in the Middle East: A Retrospective Study. American Journal of Men’s Health. 2019 May; 13(3): 1557988319848577. doi: 10.1177/1557988319848577

World Health Organization. Global report on diabetes. [Last cited on: 23rd Mar 2022]. Available at: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241565257.

DePaula AL, Macedo AL, Rassi N, Vencio S, Machado CA, Mota BR, et al. Laparoscopic treatment of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Surgical Endoscopy. 2008 Dec; 22(12): 2670-8. doi: 10.1007/s00464-008-9808

Paterson B and Thorne S. Developmental evolution of expertise in diabetes self-management. Clinical Nursing Research. 2000 Nov; 9(4): 402-19. doi: 10.1177/10547730022158663

Cooper HC, Booth K, Gill G. Patients' perspectives on diabetes health care education. Health Education Research. 2003 Apr; 18(2): 191-206. doi: 10.1093/her/18.2.191

Fontes AP, Neri AL. Resilience in aging: literature review. Ciencia & Saude Coletiva. 2015 May; 20(5): 1475-95. doi: 10.1590/1413-81232015205.00502014.

Lazarus RS. From psychological stress to the emotions: a history of changing outlooks. Annual Review of Psychology. 1993; 44: 1-21. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ps.44.020193.000245.

Crump C, Sundquist J, Winkleby MA, Sundquist K. Stress resilience and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes in 1.5 million young men. Diabetologia. 2016 Apr; 59(4): 728-33. doi: 10.1007/s00125-015-3846-7.

Boell JEW, Silva DMGVD, Guanilo MEE, Hegadoren K, Meirelles BHS, Suplici SR. Resilience and self-care in people with diabetes mellitus. Texto & Contexto-Enfermagem. 2020; 29(1): e20180105. doi: 10.1590/1980-265X-TCE-2018- 0105

Habibi-Koolaee M, Shahmoradi L, Niakan Kalhori SR, Ghannadan H, Younesi E. Prevalence of Stroke Risk Factors and Their Distribution Based on Stroke Subtypes in Gorgan; A Retrospective Hospital-Based Study-2015-2016. Neurology Research International. 2018 Jul; 2018: 2709654. doi: 10.1155/2018/2709654.

Jankowska A and Golicki D. Self-reported diabetes and quality of life: findings from a general population survey with the Short Form-12 (SF-12) Health Survey. Archives of Medical Science. 2021 Apr; 18(5): 1157-1168. doi: 10.5114/aoms/135797.

Lukács A, Mayer K, Sasvári P, Barkai L. Health-related quality of life of adolescents with type 1 diabetes in the context of resilience. Pediatric diabetes. 2018 Dec; 19(8): 1481-1486. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12769.

Aschalew AY, Yitayal M, Minyihun A. Health-related quality of life and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus at the University of Gondar referral hospital. Health and quality of life outcomes. 2020 Dec; 18(1): 1-8. doi: 10.1186/s12955-020-01311-5

Snoek FJ. Quality of Life: A Closer Look at Measuring Patients’ Well-Being. Diabetes spectrum. 2000 Dec; 13(1): 24.

Toobert DJ, Hampson SE, Glasgow RE. The summary of diabetes self-care activities measure: results from 7 studies and a revised scale. Diabetes Care. 2000 Jul; 23(7): 943–50. doi: 10.2337/diacare.23.7.943.

Hiew CC, Mori T, Shimizu M, Tominaga M. Measurement of resilience development: Preliminary results with a State-Trait Resilience Inventory. Journal of Learning and Curriculum Development. 2000; 1: 111-7.

Bujang MA, Omar ED, Baharum NA. A Review on Sample Size Determination for Cronbach's Alpha Test: A Simple Guide for Researchers. The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2018 Nov; 25(6): 85-99. doi: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.6.9.

Reiss K. Adequacy and Equivalence in Translation. Technical Papers for the Bible Translators. 1983; 34(3): 301–8. doi: 10.1177/02600935830340030

Panou D. Equivalence in Translation Theories: A Critical Evaluation. Theory and Practice in Language Studies. 2013 Jan; 3(1): 1-6. doi: 10.4304/tpls.3.1.1-6

Walker RJ, Gebregziabher M, Martin-Harris B, Egede LE. Understanding the influence of psychological and socioeconomic factors on diabetes self-care using structured equation modeling. Patient Education and Counseling. 2015 Jan; 98(1): 34-40. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2014.10.002.

Stewart DE and Yuen T. A systematic review of resilience in the physically ill. Psychosomatics. 2011 May; 52(3): 199-209. doi: 10.1016/j.psym.2011.01.036

Jaser SS and White LE. Coping and resilience in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Child Care Health Dev. 2011 May; 37(3): 335-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2010.01184.x.

Choowattanapakorn T, Karuna R, Konghan S, Tangmettajittakun D. Factors predicting quality of life in older people with diabetes in Thailand. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology. 2016 Nov; 38(6): 707-14.

Alhaik S, Anshasi HA, Alkhawaldeh JF, Soh KL, Naji AM. An assessment of self-care knowledge among patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2019 Jan; 13(1): 390-4. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2018.10.010.

Al-Khaledi M, Al-Dousari H, Al-Dhufairi S, Al-Mousawi T, Al-Azemi R, Al-Azimi F, et al. Diabetes Self-Management: A Key to Better Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Diabetes. Medical Principles and Practice. 2018 Sep; 27(4): 323-31. doi: 10.1159/000489310.

Mano F, Ikeda K, Uchida Y, Liu IH, Joo E, Okura M, et al. Novel psychosocial factor involved in diabetes self-care in the Japanese cultural context. Journal of Diabetes Investigation. 2019 Jul; 10(4): 1102-7. doi: 10.1111/jdi.12983



DOI: 10.54393/pjhs.v3i06.185
Published: 2022-11-30

How to Cite

khan, zahra ., & kazmi, U. E. R. . (2022). Diabetes Self Care, Resilience and Quality of Life among Patients with Type II Diabetes: Self Care, Resilience and Quality of Life among Patients with Type II Diabetes. Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences, 3(06), 55–58. https://doi.org/10.54393/pjhs.v3i06.185



Original Article